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Basic functions of living things
Gross Anatomy (macroscopic)
Considers features visible to the unaided eye.
General form and superficial markings.
Considers al of the superficial and internal features in a specific region of the body, such as the head, neck or trunk.
Considers the structure of the major organ systems, which are groups of organs that function together in a coordinated manner.
Concerns structures that cannot be seen without magnification.
Ranges of Microscopic anatomy
analyzes the internal structure of individual cells.
study of functions
- Study of the functions of living cells.
- Within cells and between cells.
physiology of specific organs.
Study of diseases on organ or system functions.
Levels of organization (small to large)
- Organ system
Refers to the existence of a stable internal environment.
Refers to adjustments in physiological systems that preserve homeostatis.
Homeostatic regulation involves?
- Control center
is sensitive to a particular environmental change or stimulus
Homeostatic Control center ( integration center)
Receives and processes information from the receptor.
responds to the commands of the control center and whose activity opposes or reinforces activity.
A variation outside the normal limits triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation.
The initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces that stimulus.
Protects against environmental hazards; helps control body temperature
- Cutaneous membrane: Dermis and epidermis
- Hair follicles: hairs and sebaceous glands
- Sweat glands
- Sensory receptors
- Subcutaneous layer
Provides support; protects tissues;stores minerals;forms blood.
- Bones,Cartilages, and Joints
- Appendicular skeleton
- Bone marrow
Alows for locomotion;provides support;produces heat.
- Skeletal muscles
- axial muscles
- appendicular muscles
- Directs immediate response to stimuli;usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems.
- Central nervous system
- Spinal cord
- Peripheral nervous system
Directs long-term change in activites of other organ systems.
- Pineal gland
- Pituitary gland
- Thyroid gland
- Parathyroid gland
- Adrenal Glands
- Gonads: Testes and Ovaries
Transports cells and dissolved materials including nutrients, wastes and gases.
- Blood vessels:Arteries, capillaries, and veins.
Defends against infection and disease; returns tissue fluid to the bloodstream.
- Lymphatic vessels
- lymph nodes
Delivers air to sides where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood.
- Nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses
Processes food and absorbs nutrients.
- Salivary glands
- small intestine
- gall bladder
- large intestine
Eliminates excess waster, salts and waste products.
- urinary bladder
right angles to the long (head to foot)axis of the body and divides the body into superior and inferior protions
Frontal Plane (Coronal Plane)
runs along the long axis of the body. The frontal plane extents lateraly(side to side), and divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
Divides left and right protions
Belly side(equal to anterior when referring to the human body)
The back(when referring to the human body)
Above; at a higher level (to the head in the body)
The tail(coccyx in humans)
Below: lower level
Towards the body's longitudinal axis
Away from the body's longitudinal axis
Away from the attached base
Toward an attached base
At,near, or relatively close to the body surface.
Farther from the body surface
Ventral body cavity (coelom)
- Thoratic cavity
- Abdominopelvic cavity
- 1 Pericardial cavity
- 2 plural cavities
Connective tissue surrounds the paricardial cavity and heart, large arteries and veins attached to the heart, and the thymus, trachea, and esophagus.
Outside to in
- Parietal pericardium
- Pericardial cavity
- Viseral pericardium
Internal organs within the thoratic and abdminopelvic cavities
portion of serous membrane that covers a visceral organ.
seruous membrane that the inner surface of the body wall or chamber
serous membrane that lines a pleural cavity