فيزيولوجيا

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Kojack
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192945
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فيزيولوجيا
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2013-01-15 12:12:11
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  1. For an action potential to occur:
    • A. The stimulus must reach or exceed threshold
    • B. Sodium movement into the cell must exceed potassium movement out of the cell
    • C. The membrane must be out of the absolute refractory period
    • D. All of the above are correct.
    • E. Only A and B are correct.
  2. The hormone insulin causes the transport of glucose into body cell. Its secretion is controlled by a negative feedback system. Which of the following is most likely to be correct?
    • A. a decrease in blood glucose concentration will stimulate insulin secretion, which will in turn lower the blood glucose concentration further
    • B. an increase in blood glucose concentration will stimulate insulin secretion, which will in turn lower the blood glucose concentration.
    • C. a decrease in blood glucose concentration will stimulate insulin secretion, which
    • will in turn increase the blood glucose concentration.
    • D. an increase in blood glucose concentration will stimulate insulin secretion, which will in turn increase the blood glucose concentration further
    • E. none of the above
  3. Homeostasis
    • A. depends primarily on positive feedback
    • B. depends upon the interaction of receptor, integrating centers, and effectors
    • C. depends primarily upon negative feedback
    • D. B and C
    • E. A and C
  4. The way in which the nervous system can detect the intensity of a stimulus is
    • A. the size of action potential
    • B. the frequency of action potential
    • C. the duration of each action potential
    • D. A and B
    • E. A, B and C
  5. Cell membrane receptor are
    • A. proteins
    • B. phospholipids
    • C. cholesterol
    • D. glycolipids
    • E. none of the above
  6. Which of the following statements applies to paracrine regulation?
    • A. paracrine chemicals are al released directly into the blood stream
    • B. prostaglandins are paracrine chemicals
    • C. paracrine chemicals are released by cellsin a tissue and act on cells in the same vicinity
    • D. A and B
    • E. B and C
  7. Which of the following would be likely to after cell’s resting membrane potential?
    • A. loss of the Na+ through dehydration
    • B. Opening chemical –gated Na+ channels
    • C. Stopping the Na+ / K+ pump
    • D. An excess of K+ in the ECF
    • E. All of the above
  8. A protein is found in blood that is produced by the pituitary gland and acts the testes, the protein is classified as a/an
    • A. neurotransmitter
    • B. autocrine agent
    • C. pararine agent
    • D. Hormone
    • E. not enough information to determine
  9. Cell membranes
    • A. consist primarily of proteins and carbohydrates
    • B. are part of the interstitial fluid
    • C. consist primarily of phospholipids and proteins
    • D. do not contribute to cell physiology
    • E. both C and D are true
  10. The process of breaking down glucose to from ATP energy
    • A. glycolysis
    • B. gluconeogenesis
    • C. glycogenolysis
    • D. glycogenesis
    • E. none of the above
  11. Enzymes 
    • A. are shape-specific proteins
    • B. are carbohydrate molecules
    • C. decrease the rate of chemical reactions
    • D. are consumed during chemical reactions
    • E. are described by all of the above
  12. Which of the following can be used to produce ATP by cellular respiration? 
    • A. Carbohydrates
    • B. Lipids
    • C. Protein
    • D. A and B only
    • E. A, B and C
  13. Ammonia is 
    • A. a waste product of lipid metabolism
    • B. processed by the liver to as a less toxic compound
    • C. a waste product of protein metabolism
    • D. a waste product of carbohydrate metabolism
    • E. B and C
  14. Which of the following is the true of cell membrane?
    • A. the phospholipid bilayer is arrange so that the hydrophobic tails of the phospholipid molecules force the ICF and ECF
    • B. some proteins integrated into the membrane serve as channels for the passage of nonpolar molecules through the membrane
    • C. some proteins integrated into the membrane serve as channels for the passage of ions through the membrane.
    • D. A and C
    • E. A, B and C
  15. Simple diffusion across a membrane
    • A. results in net movement of solutes from regions of low concentration of high
    • concentration.
    • B. is important for transporting molecules over large distance in the body 
    • C. does not require a carrier protein
    • D. is influenced by the surface area of the membrane
    • E. C and D

     
  16. Which of the following could most easily cross the lipid portion of the plasma membrane
    • A. Fatty acids
    • B. glucose
    • C. insulin, a protein
    • D. K+

     
  17. Which of the following statements regarding the active transport of substances across cell membranes is correct
    • A. both primary and secondary active transport will eventually use ATP energy.
    • B. active transport requires a carrier protein
    • C. active transport moves molecules from their low concentration to their high concentration.
    • D. A and C
    • E. A, B and C
  18. Which of the following statement about the Na+/K+ pump is false
    • A. it transports Na+ out of cells and K+ into cells
    • B. it uses ATP
    • C. it is constantly active in all cells
    • D. it transports Na+/K+ in a 3:1 ratio
    • E. it requires a carrier protein
  19. Of the following examples of transport requires a carrier protein
    • A. Facilitated diffusion of glucose down its concentration gradient
    • B. diffusion of K+ down its concentration gradient
    • C. the Na+/K+pump
    • D. the movement of water into a cell
    • E. both A and C require a carrier protein
  20. Which of the following statements regarding endocytosis and exocytosis is correct
    • A. Endocytosis is a method by which large molecules maybe brought into the cell
    • B. Exocytosis is a method by which large molecules maybe excreted from the cell
    • C. Pinocytosis is a form of endocytosis ; phagocytosis is a form of exocytosis
    • D. A and B
    • E. A, B and C
  21. A Chemical messenger is released by a cell within the thyroid gland an binds to receptors on other thyroid cells and to receptors on itself. This chemical messenger would be considered
    • A. neurotransmitter
    • B. hormone
    • C. paracrine factor
    • D. autocrine factor
    • E. C and D are correct
  22. The concentration gradient for Na+?
    • A. favor its diffusion into a cell
    • B. favor its diffusion out of a cell
    • C. is maintained by the Na+/K+ pump
    • D. A and C
    • E. B and C
  23. In response to falling blood pressure, the nervous system will stimulate the heart to pump harder and increase blood pressure. This is an example of
    • A. extrinsic regulation to accomplish negative feedback
    • B. intrinsic regulation to accomplish negative feedback
    • C. extrinsic regulation to accomplish positive feedback
    • D. intrinsic regulation to accomplish positive feedback
    • E. none for the above
  24. If a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution
    • A. the cell will swell
    • B. the cell will crenate
    • C. the solution has a higher concentration of solutes than the cell
    • D. the solution has a lower concentration of solutes than the cell
    • E. B and C are true

     
  25. In transepithelial transport of glucose from the lumen of the intestine into the bloodstream, which of the following moves into the apical surface of the epithelial cell without the expenditure of ATP energy
    • A. potassium
    • B. glucose
    • C. sodium
    • D. all of the above
    • E. B and C are correct
  26. Which of the following type of transport does not rely on a concentration gradient? 
    • A. simple diffusion
    • B. osmosis
    • C. facilitated diffusion
    • D. filtration
    • E. all of the above
  27. Increasing the concentration of a substrate for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction will increase the rate of that reaction until the point of           is reached
    • A. equilibrium
    • B. saturation
    • C. atabolism
    • D. metabolism
  28. Which of the following type of transport is involved in transepithelial transport of sodium?
    • A. activen transport of Na+
    • B. Diffusion of Na+ through a carrier
    • C. Diffusion of Na+ through a channel
    • D. all of the above
    • E. A and C
  29. Which of the following would generally cause an increased (enzyme-catalyzed0 reaction rate?
    • A. increased substrate concentration
    • B. increased enzyme concentration
    • C. increased product concentration
    • D. all of the above
    • E. A and B only
  30. Which of the following example of transport does not require a carrier protein?
    • A. facilitated diffusion of glucose down its concentration gradient
    • B. diffusion of K+ down concentration gradient
    • C. the Na+/ K+ pump
    • D. the movement of water into a cell
    • E. neither B nor D requires a carrier protein
  31. Place the number of these components of a reflex arc in the correct order
    1. effector
    2. receptor
    3. afferent pathway
    4. stimulus
    5. integration center
    6. efferentpathway
    • A. 4 3 2 6 5 1
    • B. 4 2 3 5 6 1
    • C. 2 4 1 3 6 5
    • D. 4 2 3 5 1 6
  32. Which of the following is responsible for restoring the resting electrical gradient (polarized nature) of the plasma membrane after an action potential?
    • A. the opening of voltage-gated Na+ channels
    • B. the Na+/ K+ pump
    • C. Ca2+ channels opening
    • D. loss of ATD
    • E. the opening of voltage-gated K+ channels
  33. The absolute refractory period of a cell has primarily to do with 
    • A. the status of the voltage-gated Na+ channels
    • B. the status of the chemical-gated Na+ channels
    • C. the intensity of the original stimulus             
    • D. all of the above
    • E. none of the above
  34. Opening gated Na+ channels in a cell membrane would result in
    • A. hyperpolarization
    • B. repolarization
    • C. depolarization
    • D. the inside and the outside of the cell membrane becoming more similar
    • E. both C and D are true
  35. The movement of which ion will dependably cause depolarization 
    • A. sodium
    • B. potassium
    • C. chloride
    • D. hydroxide
  36. The process of making glucose from amino acids is 
    • A. glycogenesis
    • B. gluconeogenesis
    • C. glycogenolysis
    • D. lipogenesis
  37. When an enzyme is controlled by a molecule binding somewhere other than the active site, it is called 
    • A. positive feedback
    • B. covalent regulation
    • C. allosteric regulation
    • D. homeostatic regulation
  38. The sodium/ potassium pump is a       protein that pumps       out of the cell and         into the cell
    • A. carrier, Na+, K+ 
    • B. carrier, K+, Na+
    • C. channel, Na+, K+
    • D. channel, K+, Na+
  39. Which of the following statement about transepithelial transport oft glucose with sodium is true?
    • A. glucose move out of the apical surface of the cell while sodium moves into apical surface of the cell
    • B. sodium moves out of the apical surface of the cell, but the movement of glucose will vary based on the type of cell
    • C. glucose and sodium both move out of the apical surface of the cell
    • D. glucose and sodium both move into the apical surface of the cell
    • E. glucose moves into the cell while sodium moves out of the apical surface of the cell
  40. What type of ion channels are responsible for establishing the resting membrane potential of a cell?
    • A. leak channels
    • B. chemical or ligand-gated channels
    • C. voltage-gated sodium channels
    • D. voltage-gated potassium channels
  41. Hypocalcemia explains the basis for stopping the heart beat during lethal injection
    False
  42. A cell must have equal intracellular and extracellular concentrations of Na+ and K+ in order to be homeostatically balanced 
    Flase
  43. A system in which the response increases the strength of the original stimulus is known as negative feedback
    False
  44. Graded potentials can be either depolarizing or hyperpolarizing
    True
  45. Blood clotting is an example of positive feedback since the action of the effector amplifies the original stimulus
    True
  46. Allosteric regulation often involves the covalent attachment of a phosphate group to an enzyme to change the enzymes activity
    False
  47. a strong stimulus produces a strong action potential
    False
  48. During the relative refractory period, the stimulus intensity required to start an action potential is greater
    True
  49. primary source of negative changes in the intracellular fluid is the presence of chloride ions
    False
  50. The change inside the cell membrane is positive at resting membrane potential
    False

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