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2013-01-15 13:53:51
biology mitosis process interphase

biology mitosis notecards
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  1. Interphase
    • -Period of cell growth
    • -cell content has doubled --> two centrosomes
    • -chromosomes are duplicated (still in chromatin form)
  2. Mitosis Subcategories
    • -prophase
    • -prometaphase
    • -metaphase
    • -anaphase
    • -telophase
    • -cytokinesis

  3. Prophase
    • -chromatin fibers become more tightly folded, forming chromosomes
    • -each duplicated chromosome appears as two sister chromatids bound at the "waist", or centromere
    • -mitotic spindle begins to form as microtubules rapidly grow out from centrosomes
    • - centrosomes begin to move away from each other
  4. Prometaphase
    • -nuclear envelope breaks and disappears
    • -some microtubules from centrosomes have extended and attached to chromosomes (now highly condensed) at its kinetochore
    • -other microtubules attach to microtubules in opposite pole
    • -protein motors associated with microtubules move chromosomes toward center of cell
  5. Metaphase
    • -mitotic spindle fully formed, with poles at opposite ends
    • -chromosomes convene on metaphase plate; centromeres line up
    • -kinetochores face opposite poles of spindle
  6. Anaphase
    • -two centromeres of each chromosome come apart, separating the sister chromatids
    • -daughter chromosomes are walked by protein ¬†motor towards opposite ends of cell
    • -microtubule spindle simultaneously shortens
    • -microtubules not attached to chromosomes lengthen
    • -cell lengthens
    • -anaphase is over when chromosomes have reached the two poles of the cell
  7. Telophase
    • -cell elongation continues
    • -daughter nuclei appear at two poles¬†
    • -nuclear envelopes reform around chromosomes
    • -chromatin fiber of each chrom. uncoils
    • -mitotic spindle disappears
    • -equal division of one nucleus into two nuclei is now finished

    (essentially opposite of prophase)
  8. Cytokinesis
    • -division of the cytoplasm
    • -occurs with telophase
    • -animal cell: cleavage furrow
    • -plant cell: vesicles create new cell wall