Anatomy Quiz 2

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jacwill
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193016
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Anatomy Quiz 2
Updated:
2013-01-20 21:10:18
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Anatomy Phsyio Chap Notes
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chapter one notes on anatomy and physiology
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  1. what are the major parts of the body?
    • trunk or torso
    • thorax-chest
    • abdomen
    • pelvis
  2. what are the major parts of the skull?
    • cranial portion
    •    -houses the brain and its components
    • facial part
    •    -part of the skull that houses the mouth, pharynx, nasal cavity and structures related to the upper airway and mastication (chewing)
  3. what are attached to the trunk/torso?
    upper and lower extremities
  4. upper extremities
    • arms (shoulder to elbow)
    • forarms
    • wrist
    • hand
  5. lower extremities
    • thigh
    • leg 
    • ankle
    • foot
  6. anatomical postion
    • body erect
    • palms, arms and hands face forward
  7. fascia
    • surrounds organs-sheetlike membrane
    •    may be dense or filmy, thin or thick
  8. ligament
    binding
  9. visceral ligament
    bind organs together or hold in place
  10. skeletal ligaments
    withstand great pressure and typically bind bone to bone
  11. tendons
    • attach muscles to bone or cartilage
    • tendon is actually part of the muscle and binds muscles to other structures
  12. aponeurosis
    when a tendon is sheetlike, is is called an aponeurosis (diaphragm)
  13. an aponeuosis is _______ than fascia.
    denser
  14. What do bones begin as?
    cartilage
  15. cartilage
    • many points of articulation or joining between bones are comprised of cartilage
    • cart. surfaces are smoother and glide across each other more freely than surfaces of bone
  16. what do bones do?
    provide rigid skeletal support and protect organs and soft tissues
  17. where does blood cell production occur?
    in the bones
  18. what important factors help to keep bones healthy?
    • calcium
    • vitamin d
    • exercise
  19. joints
    the union of bones with other bones, or cartilage with other cartilage is achieved by means of joints
  20. what are joints classified by?
    • the degree of movement they allow
    • 1. high mobility-diarthrodial joints
    • 2. limited mobility-amphiarthrodial (cartilaginous) cartilage porvides the union between two bones (sternum).  Also symphysis like pubic bones
    • 3. no mobility-synarthrodial (fibrous), like bones of the skull
  21. diarthrodial joints
    also synovial joints which contain synovial fluid within a joint space
  22. amphiarthrodial
    cartilaginous joints (limited mobility)
  23. fibrous joints
    synarthrodial (no mobility) like the sutures of the skull
  24. gomphosis
    hole in peg joints, tooth in socket (alveolus)
  25. what is respiration?
    • the exchange of gas between an organism and its environment
    •    -bring O2 to cells of body to sustain life by INHALATION/INSPIRATION
    •    -eliminate waste products by breathing out or EXHALATION/EXPIRATION
    •    -exchange of gases takes place in air sacs call alveoli
  26. respiratory system consist of?
    • lungs
    • bronchial passageway
    • trachea
    • larynx
    • pharynx
    • oral and nasal cavities
  27. BOYLES LAW
    • if you INCREASE the volume (size) of a chamber, the PRESSURE will DECREASE, this
    • NEGATIVE PRESSURE
    • if you DECREASE the volume (size) of a chamber, the PRESSURE will INCREASE, this is POSITIVE PRESSURE
  28. What are the four types of tissues in the body?
    • 1. epithelial-superficial layer of mucous membranes and the cells constituting the skin, single layer of cells
    •    -squamous=most common, flat cells lining of blood vessels, heart, alveoli, lymphatic vessels
    • 2. connective-specialized for support and protection, usually consisting of a matrix
    •    -adipose=loose connective tissue with high fat cells, between muscles and organs
    •    -lymphoid=found in tonsils and adenoids
    •    -cartilage=strength and elasticity, firm and flexible
    •    -blood=suspended in connective tissue matrix, blood plasma
    •    -bone=hardest of connective tissue, compact or spongy
    • 3. muscular
    • 4. nerve-highly specialized connective tissue, job is to send info from one neuron to another
    •    -neurons=transfer info, communication tissue
    •    -glial cells=nutrient transfer, blood-brain barrier
  29. what are the parts of the upper respiratory system?
    • oral
    • nasal
    • pharyngeal
  30. what are the parts of the lower respiratory system?
    • trachea
    •    -16-20 horseshoe shaped cartilaginous rings (flat back)
    •    -esophagus runs posterior to the trachea
    •    -from 6th C vertebra to bronchi
    •    -hyaline cartilage=smooth carllagenous coushion between structures
    •    -space between rings is fibrous tissue and smooth muscle
    •    -ends at carina (keel)

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