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what are the major parts of the body?
- trunk or torso
what are the major parts of the skull?
- cranial portion
- -houses the brain and its components
- facial part
- -part of the skull that houses the mouth, pharynx, nasal cavity and structures related to the upper airway and mastication (chewing)
what are attached to the trunk/torso?
upper and lower extremities
- arms (shoulder to elbow)
- body erect
- palms, arms and hands face forward
- surrounds organs-sheetlike membrane
- may be dense or filmy, thin or thick
bind organs together or hold in place
withstand great pressure and typically bind bone to bone
- attach muscles to bone or cartilage
- tendon is actually part of the muscle and binds muscles to other structures
when a tendon is sheetlike, is is called an aponeurosis (diaphragm)
an aponeuosis is _______ than fascia.
What do bones begin as?
- many points of articulation or joining between bones are comprised of cartilage
- cart. surfaces are smoother and glide across each other more freely than surfaces of bone
what do bones do?
provide rigid skeletal support and protect organs and soft tissues
where does blood cell production occur?
in the bones
what important factors help to keep bones healthy?
the union of bones with other bones, or cartilage with other cartilage is achieved by means of joints
what are joints classified by?
- the degree of movement they allow
- 1. high mobility-diarthrodial joints
- 2. limited mobility-amphiarthrodial (cartilaginous) cartilage porvides the union between two bones (sternum). Also symphysis like pubic bones
- 3. no mobility-synarthrodial (fibrous), like bones of the skull
also synovial joints which contain synovial fluid within a joint space
cartilaginous joints (limited mobility)
synarthrodial (no mobility) like the sutures of the skull
hole in peg joints, tooth in socket (alveolus)
what is respiration?
- the exchange of gas between an organism and its environment
- -bring O2 to cells of body to sustain life by INHALATION/INSPIRATION
- -eliminate waste products by breathing out or EXHALATION/EXPIRATION
- -exchange of gases takes place in air sacs call alveoli
respiratory system consist of?
- bronchial passageway
- oral and nasal cavities
- if you INCREASE the volume (size) of a chamber, the PRESSURE will DECREASE, this
- NEGATIVE PRESSURE
- if you DECREASE the volume (size) of a chamber, the PRESSURE will INCREASE, this is POSITIVE PRESSURE
What are the four types of tissues in the body?
- 1. epithelial-superficial layer of mucous membranes and the cells constituting the skin, single layer of cells
- -squamous=most common, flat cells lining of blood vessels, heart, alveoli, lymphatic vessels
- 2. connective-specialized for support and protection, usually consisting of a matrix
- -adipose=loose connective tissue with high fat cells, between muscles and organs
- -lymphoid=found in tonsils and adenoids
- -cartilage=strength and elasticity, firm and flexible
- -blood=suspended in connective tissue matrix, blood plasma
- -bone=hardest of connective tissue, compact or spongy
- 3. muscular
- 4. nerve-highly specialized connective tissue, job is to send info from one neuron to another
- -neurons=transfer info, communication tissue
- -glial cells=nutrient transfer, blood-brain barrier
what are the parts of the upper respiratory system?
what are the parts of the lower respiratory system?
- -16-20 horseshoe shaped cartilaginous rings (flat back)
- -esophagus runs posterior to the trachea
- -from 6th C vertebra to bronchi
- -hyaline cartilage=smooth carllagenous coushion between structures
- -space between rings is fibrous tissue and smooth muscle
- -ends at carina (keel)