Patho I Exam 2

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studytaz
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193034
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Patho I Exam 2
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2013-01-16 21:39:35
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Cellular rxn injury structural abnormalities
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Patho I Exam 2 Cellular rxn to injury; structural abnormalities
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  1. pathological processes indicating disturbances in cell metabolism
    regressive tissue changes
  2. the deterioration of tissues with the corresponding functional impairment that is due disease or injury
    degeneration
  3. the most common and least damaging of the degenerations
    cloudy swelling
  4. increased water content in the affected cells causes enlargement
    cloudy swelling
  5. this excess water causes the cytoplasm to be turbid (cloudy)
    cloudy swelling
  6. a degenerative condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation or distribution of visible fat in the cells
    • fatty degeneration
    • fatty change
  7. triglycerides that are the result of the digestion of fats
    • fatty degeneration
    • fatty change
  8. caused by the presence of a waxy, starch-like substance called amyloid
    amyloid degeneration
  9. a complex protein formed due to a metabolic disorder
    amyloid degeneration
  10. the process of seepage of diffusion into a tissue of substances not ordinarily present
    infiltration
  11. the circulatory system is the vehicle
    infiltration
  12. the abnormal deposition of fat within cells
    fatty infiltration
  13. fat has been brought by the blood
    fatty infiltration
  14. must have _________ to get fatty degeneration
    fatty infiltration
  15. discoloring of tissue due to deposition of or lack of coloring matter
    pigmentation
  16. an increase or irregularity in distribution of pigments normally within the body
    endogenous pigmentation
  17. examples of endogenous pigmentation
    • melanin - freckles
    • bilirubin - yellow
    • hemoglobin - red
  18. deposition of pigments from outside the body
    exogenous pigmentation
  19. enter through the portals of entry for respiration, ingestion, and absorption
    exogenous pigmentation
  20. carotene containing food
    exogenous pigmentation

    carotenemia - yellow color, (sometimes mistaken for jaundice)
  21. large amounts of carbon pigment in lungs - (coal dust)
    exogenous pigmentation

    anthracosis (Black lung disease)
  22. a process in which organic tissue becomes hardened by the deposition of lime salts in the tissues
    Calcification
  23. the condition which occurs because of the deposition of urates of sodium in and round the joints
    Gout
  24. pathological death of cells, tissues, or organs while yet a part of the living body
    necrosis
  25. must include the degeneration of the cells to be considered
    necrosis
  26. trauma
    cause of necrosis
  27. vessel blockage
    cause of necrosis
  28. extreme heat or cold
    cause of necrosis
  29. chemical or bacterial poisoning
    cause of necrosis
  30. loss of nerve supply
    cause of necrosis
  31. death of tissue due to a deficiency of blood supply
    gangrene
  32. form of necrosis combined with putrefaction
    gangrene
  33. caused by Clostridium perferingens
    gas gangrene
  34. tissue gas in dead host
    gas gangrene
  35. gas gangrene in living host
    gas gangrene
  36. the result of interference in the arterial supply of a part of the body
    Dry gangrene

    Ischemic Necrosis
  37. there is no invasion by saprophytes
    (Bacteria plays no part)
    • Dry gangrene
    • Ischemic Necrosis
  38. occurs often in cases of diabetes mellitus
    • Dry gangrene
    • Ischemic Necrosis
  39. necrotic tissue that is wet as a result of inadequate venous drainage
    Moist Gangrene
  40. putrefactive bacteria are present
      (saprophytic bacteria)
    Moist Gangrene
  41. part is cold, swollen, pulseless, skin is moist, black, and under tension
    Moist Gangrene
  42. liquefaction occurs and foul odor is present
    Moist Gangrene
  43. spread is rapid - usually fatal if not treated
    Moist Gangrene
  44. Ex. Decubitus ulcer (bedsore)
    Moist Gangrene
  45. seen in tissues infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis - TB
    Caseous Necrosis

    Caseation Necrosis
  46. the fat in the affected organ's outer structure (capsule) causes the infected tissues to be converted into
    A yellow, cheese-like material

    • Caseous Necrosis
    • Caseation Necrosis
  47. the wasting or decrease in size of an organ or tissue due to a decrease in size or number of cells
    Atrophy
  48. part of the normal developmental process
    physiological atrophy
  49. mammary glands after lactation
    physiological atrophy
  50. tonsils, spleen, lymphoid tissue after mid-life
    physiological atrophy
  51. caused atrophy (an abnormal occurrence)
    pathological atrophy
  52. inadequate nutrition, disuse, pressure, loss of nerve supply, lack of endocrine supply
    causes of pathological atrophy
  53. the increase in size of an organ or tissue due to an increase in size of the component cells
    hypertrophy
  54. due to natural rather than pathological factors
    i.e. uterus during pregnancy
    Physiological Hypertrophy
  55. adaptive results from abnormal obstruction of hollow organs or from damage to some of the cells in the affected tissue
    i.e. heart chamber due to disease, urinary bladder due to blockage
    Pathological Hypertrophy
  56. accommodates increased functional demand on tissue after tissue of the same type has been lost or has died
    Compensatory Hypertrophy
  57. occurs in paired organs like the lungs & kidneys
    Compensatory Hypertrophy
  58. an increase in size of an organ or part due to an increase in the NUMBER of cells
    hyperplasia
  59. may be due to inflammation or increased functional demand over a long period
    i.e. Goiter
    Hyperplasia
  60. the replacement of one type of normal tissue by another type of normal tissue in an area of the body where the second tissue doesn't normally occur

    I.e. Smokers exhibit this in the lungs
    Metaplasia
  61. the restoration of destroyed or necrotic cells with normal cells of the same type
    Physiological Regeneration or Replacement
  62. the restoration of destroyed or necrotic cells with fibrous connective tissue forming a scar cicatrix
    Pathological Regeneration or Repair
  63. known as a malformation or anomaly
    Structural abnormalities
  64. a deformity
    Structural abnormalities
  65. any abnormal position, shape or structure of a body part
  66. any abnormal position, shape or structure of a body part
    Structural abnormalities
  67. any deviation from normal
    Structural abnormalities
  68. a congenital defect in the walls of the spinal canal in which part of the vertebral column is absent or there is incomplete closure
    spina bifida
  69. a congenital fissure in the palate forming a communication passageway between the oral and nasal cavities
    cleft palate
  70. failure of a tissue or an organ to develop normally
    aplasia
  71. the congenital absence of one or more limbs
    amelia
  72. the condition of an organ or tissue being smaller than normal from birth
    hypoplasia
  73. the under development of an organ or part
    hypoplasia
  74. the absence or poor development of the proximal portions of the extremities
    Phocomelia
  75. some or all of the organs of the body are on the side opposite of that on which they normally belong
    situs inversus
  76. the state of having more than the normal number of fingers and toes
    polydactylism
  77. a defect or absence of the perception of colors
    color blindness
  78. a mole or birthmark in which the superficial blood vessels are enlarged
    vascular nervus
  79. a variety of moderate to severe mental retardations caused by the presence of an extra chromosome
    down's syndrome
  80. protrusion or projection of an organ or a part of an organ through the wall of the cavity which normally contains it
    hernia

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