APUSH midterm 2

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APUSH midterm 2
2013-01-15 20:07:14
APUSH midterm

APUSH midterm 2
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  1. used a method called “vertical integration,” which meant that he bought out and controlled all aspects of an industry
    andrew carnegie
  2. is a derogatory term applied to wealthy and powerful 19th century American businessmen. By the late 1800's, the term was typically applied to businessmen who used what were considered to be exploitative practices to amass their wealth.
    robber barrons
  3. master of “horizontal integration,” simply allied with or bought out competitors to monopolize a given market.
    • John D. Rockafellar
    • Standard oil king
  4. passed in 1887, banned rebates and pools and required the railroads to publish their rates openly (so as not to cheat customers), and also forbade unfair discrimination against shippers and banned charging more for a short haul than for a long one.
    Interstate Commerce Act
  5. of 1875 pledged the government to further withdraw greenbacks and made all further redemption of paper money in gold at face value, starting in 1879.
    Resumption Act
  6. caused by too many railroads and factories being formed than existing markets could bear and the over-loaning by banks to those projects
    Panic of 1873
  7. Trumpeted the natural harmony of society and the value of community.
    Berated leaders whose appeals and self-interest fostered conflict among individuals.
    Favored a renewed national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements, public schools, and moral reforms.
    Mostly more aristocratic and wealthier.
    Generally from the East.
  8. Glorified the liberty of the individual.Clung to states’ rights and federal restraint in social and economic affairs.Mostly more humble, poorer folk.Generally from the South and West.
  9. between the U.S. and Britain provided the world’s longest unfortified boundary (5,527 mi.).
    Rush-Bagot Treaty
  10. flared up when fed-up farmers revolted against Hamilton’s excise tax.
    Whisky Rebellion
  11. created effective federal courts
    Judiciary act of 1789
  12. became the first Chief Justice of the United States
    John Jay
  13. restricted commerce from the colonies to England (and back) to only English ships, and none other.
    Navigation Laws
  14. English attempts at colonization in the New World failed embarrassingly. Notable of these failures was Sir Walter Raleigh, better known as “The Lost Colony.”
  15. Salem minister, extreme Separatist, wanted clean break with the Church of England, also challenged Bay Colony's charter, also denied the authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior which was a Puritan idea.
    Roger Williams
  16. Tariff of Abominations (1828)- Noteworthy for its unprecedentedly high duties on imports. Southerners vehemently opposed the Tariff, arguing that it hurt Southern farmers, who did not enjoy the protection of tariffs, but were forced to pay higher prices for manufactures.
    Tariff of Abominations (1828)-
  17. Determined that each slave would be counted as three-fifthsof a person for the purpose of apportioning taxes and representation. Thecompromise granted disproportionate political power to Southern slave states.
    three-fifths compromise
  18. One of the more radical utopian communities established inthe nineteenth century, it advocated “free love,” birth control, and eugenics.Utopian communities reflected the reformist spirit of the age
    Oneida Commumity
  19. Conciliatory measure adopted by the Continental Congress, professing American loyalty and seeking an end to the hostilities. King George rejected the petition and proclaimed the colonies in rebellion.
    Olive Branch Petition
  20. External, or indirect, levies on glass, white lead, paper,paint and tea, the proceeds of which were used to pay colonial governors, whohad previously been paid directly by colonial assemblies. Sparked another roundof protests in the colonies.
    Townshend Act
  21. Transatlantic voyage slaves endured between Africa and the colonies. Mortality rates were notoriously high.
    middle passage
  22. Failed proposal to prohibit the importation of slaves intoMissouri territory and pave the way for gradual emancipation. Southernersvehemently opposed the amendment, which they perceived as a threat to thesectional balance between North and South
    Tallmadge Amendment
  23. Allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state but preserved thebalance between North and South by carving free-soil Maine out of Mas sa chu settsand prohibiting slav ery from territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase,north of the line of 36°30'.
    Missouri Compromise
  24. Forced march of 15,000 Cherokee Indians from their Georgiaand Alabama homes to Indian Territory. Some 4,000 Cherokee died on the arduousjourney.
    Trail of Tears
  25. Religious revival characterized by emotional mass “camp meetings” and widespread conversion. Brought about a dem ocratization of religion as a multiplicity of denominations vied for members.
    Second Great Awakening (early nineteenth century)
  26. Acquisition of Louisiana territory from France. The purchase more than doubled the territory of the United States, opening vast tracts for settlement.
    Louisiana Purchase (1803)
  27. Statement delivered by President James Monroe, warningEuropean powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas.The United States largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, whichwas actually enforced by the British, who sought unfettered access to LatinAmerican markets.
    Monroe Doctrine
  28. Sample treaty drafted by the Continental Congress as a guidefor American diplomats. Reflected the Americans’ desire to foster commercialpartnerships rather than political or military entanglements.
    Model Treaty
  29. Tax on imported molasses passed by Parliament in an effort tosquelch the North American trade with the French West Indies. It proved largelyineffective due to widespread smuggling.
    Molasses Act
  30. Signed by Spain and Portugal, dividing the territories of the New World. Spain received the bulk of territory in the Americas, compensating Portugal with titles to lands in Africa and Asia
    Tordesillas, Treaty of (1494)
  31. Duty on imported sugar from the West Indies. It was the firsttax levied on the colonists by the crown and was lowered substantially inresponse to widespread protests.
    Sugar Act
  32. Peace treaty signed by Britain and the United States endingthe Revolutionary War. The British formally recognized American in de pen denceand ceded territory east of the Mississippi while the Americans, in turn,promised to restore Loyalist property and repay debts to British creditors.
    Treaty of Paris
  33. Passed alongside the repeal of the Embargo Act, it reopened trade with all but the two belligerent nations, Britain and France. The Act continued Jefferson’s policy of economic coercion, still with little effect.
    Non-Intercourse Act
  34. Decree issued by Parliament in the wake of Pontiac’suprising, prohibiting settlement beyond the Appalachians. Contributed to risingresentment of British rule in the American colonies.
    Proclamation of 1763
  35.  Proposed that theissue of slav ery be decided by popular sovereignty in the Kansas and Nebraskaterritories, thus revoking the 1820 Missouri Compromise. Introduced by StephenDouglass in an effort to bring Nebraska into the Union and pave the way for anorthern transcontinental railroad.
    Kansas-Nebraska Act
  36. Ended Japan’s two-hundred year period of economic isolation, establishing an American consulate in Japan and securing American coaling rights in Japanese ports.
    Kanagawa, Treaty of (1854)-
  37. Ordered the removal of Indian Tribes still residing east of the Mississippi to newly established Indian Territory west of Arkansas and Missouri. Tribes resisting eviction were forcibly removed by American forces, often after prolonged legal or military battles.
    Indian Removal Act
  38. Series of punitive mea sures passed in retaliation for the Boston Tea Party, closing the Port of Boston, revoking a number of rights in the Mas sa chu setts colonial charter, and expanding the Quartering Act to allow for the lodging of soldiers in private homes. In response, colonists convened the First Continental Congress and called for a complete boycott of British goods.
    Intolerable Acts
  39. Under the terms of the treaty, the Miami Confederacy agreedto cede territory in the Old Northwest to the United States in exchange forcash payment, hunting rights, and formal recognition of their sovereign status
    Treaty of Greenville
  40. Negotiated by Chief Justice John Jay in an efforto avoid warwith Britain, the treaty included a British promise to evacuate outposts onU.S. soil and pay damages for seized American vessels, in exchange for whichJay bound the United States to repay pre-Revolutionary war debts and to abideby Britain’s restrictive trading policies toward France.
    Jay's Treaty
  41. Short-term partnership between multiple investors to fund acommercial enterprise; such arrangements were used to fund En gland’s earlycolonial ventures.
    Joint Stock company
  42. Organized the federal legal system, establishing the Supreme Court, federal district and circuit courts, and the office of the attorney general.
    Judiciary act of 1789
  43. Passed by the departing Federalist Congress, it createdsixteen new federal judgeships ensuring a Federalist hold on the judiciary.
    Judiciary act of 1801
  44. German troops hired from their princes by George III to aidin putting down the colonial insurrection. This hardened the resolve ofAmerican colonists, who resented the use of paid foreign fighters
  45. Convention of Federalists from five New England states whoopposed the War of 1812 and resented the strength of Southern and Westerninterests in Congress and in the White House
    Hartford Convention
  46. Migration of seventy thousand refugees from England to theNorth American colonies, primarily New England and the Caribbean. The twentythousand migrants who came to Massachusetts largely shared a common sense of purpose—to establish a model Christian settlement in the new world.
    Great Migration
  47. Popular term for the mea sure which reconciled the New Jerseyand Virginia plans at the constitutional convention, giving states proportionalrepresentation in the House and equal representation in the Senate. Thecompromise broke the stalemate at the convention and paved the way forsubsequent compromises over slav ery and the Electoral College.
    Great Compromise
  48. Ended the war with Mexico. Mexico agreed to cede territoryreaching northwest from Texas to Oregon in exchange for $18.25 million in cashand assumed debts.
    Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of (1848)
  49. Ended the War of 1812 in a virtual draw restoring prewarborders but failing to address any of the grievances that first brought Americainto the war.
    Treay of Ghent
  50. Acquired additional land from Mexico for $10 million tofacilitate the construction of a southern transcontinental railroad.
    Gadsden Purchase
  51. Proponents of the 1787 Constitution, they favored a strong national government, arguing that the checks and balances in the new Constitution would safeguard the  people’s liberties.
  52. Tax on goods produced domestically. Excise taxes,particularly the 1791 tax on whiskey, were a highly controversial component of Alexander Hamilton’s financial program.
    Excise Tax
  53. Enacted in response to British and French mistreatment ofAmerican merchants, the Act banned the export of all goods from the United States to any foreign port. The embargo placed great strains on the Americaneconomy while only marginally affecting its European targets, and was thereforerepealed in1809.
    Embargo Act
  54. Historians’ term for the spoliation of Western naturalresources through excessive hunting, logging, mining, and grazing.
    ecological imperialism
  55. Passed alongside the repeal of the Stamp Act, it reaffirmedParliament’s unqualified sovereignty over the North American colonies
    Declartory Act
  56. Declaration of rights adopted during the French Revolution.Modeled after the American Declaration of Independence
    Declaration of the Rights of Man
  57. Formal pronouncement of in de pen dence drafted by Thomas Jefferson and approved by Congress. The declaration allowed Americans to appeal for foreign aid and served as an inspiration for later revolutionary movements worldwide.
    Declaration of Independence
  58. Eighteenth century religious doctrine that emphasized reasoned moral behavior and the scientific pursuit of knowledge. Most deists rejected biblical inerrancy and the divinity of Christ, but they did believe that a Supreme Being created the universe
  59. Northern Whigs who opposed slav ery on moral grounds.Conscience Whigs sought to prevent the annexation of Texas as a slave state,fearing that the new slave territory would only serve to buttress the Southern“slave power.”
    Conscience Whigs
  60. Popular term for the first ten amendments to the U.S.Constitution. The amendments secure key rights for individuals and reserve tothe states all powers not explicitly delegated or prohibited by theConstitution.
    Bill of Rights
  61. Chartered by Congress as part of Alexander Hamilton’s financial program, the bank printed paper money and served as a depository for Treasury funds. It drew opposition from Jeffersonian Republicans, who argued that the bank was unconstitutional.
    Bank of the United States
  62. First American constitution that established the UnitedStates as a loose confederation of states under a weak national Congress, whichwas not granted the power to regulate commerce or collect taxes. The Articleswere replaced by a more efficient Constitution in 1789.
    Articles of Confederation
  63. Uprising of Virginia backcountry farmers and indentured servants led by planter Nathaniel Bacon; initially a response to Governor William Berkeley’s refusal to protect backcountry settlers from Indian attacks, the rebellion eventually grew into a broader conflict between impoverished settlers and the planter elite
    Bacon's Rebellion
  64.  Also known assumptuary laws, they are designed to restrict personal behavior in accord witha strict code of morality. Blue laws were passed across the colonies,particularly in Puritan New England and Quaker Pennsylvania.
    Blue Laws
  65. Convention of major European powers to redraw the boundariesof continental Europe after the defeat of Napoleonic  France
    Congress of Vienna
  66. Transcendentalist commune founded by a group of intellectuals, who emphasized living plainly while pursuing the life of the mind. The community fell into debt and dissolved when their communal home burned to the ground in 1846.
    Brook Farm
  67. Battle between President Andrew Jackson and Congressionalsupporters of the Bank of the United States over the bank’s renewal in 1832.Jackson vetoed the Bank Bill, arguing that the bank favored moneyed interestsat the expense of western farmers.
    Bank War
  68. Passed in Maryland, it guaranteed toleration to all Christians but decreed the death penalty for those, like Jews and atheists, whodenied the divinity of Jesus Christ. Ensured that Maryland would continue toattract a high proportion of Catholic migrants throughout the colonial period.
    Act of Toleration
  69.  Acts passed by a Federalist Congress raising the residencyrequirement for citizenship to fourteen years and granting the president thepower to deport dangerous foreigners in times of peace.
    alien laws
  70. Intercolonial congress summoned by the British government tofoster greater colonial unity and assure Iroquois support in the escalating waragainst the French.
    Albany Congress
  71. Henry Clay’s three-pronged system to promote American industry. Clay advocated a strong banking system, a protective tariff, and a federally funded transportation network.
    American System
  72. First founded in New York, it gained considerable influencein New En gland and the midAtlantic during the 1832 election, campaigningagainst the politically influential Masonic order, a secret society.Anti-Masons opposed Andrew Jackson, a Mason, and drew much of their supportfrom evangelical Protestants.
    Anti-Masonic party (established c. 1826)-
  73. Series of clashes between American and Canadian lumberjacksin the disputed territory of northern Maine, resolved when a permanent boundarywas agreed upon in 1842.
    Aroostook War (began 1839)-
  74. George Washington’s address at the end of his presidency,warning against “permanent alliances” with other nations. Washington did notoppose all alliances, but believed that the young, fledgling nation shouldforge alliances only on a temporary basis, in extraordinary circumstances.
    Farewell Address
  75. Series of clashes between the Powhatan Confederacy and En glish settlers in Virginia. English colonists torched and pillaged Indian villages, applying tactics used in England’s campaigns against the Irish.
    First Anglo-Powhatan War (1614)-
  76. Treaty signed by the United States and the pro-BritishIroquois granting Ohio country to the Americans
    Fort Stanwix, Treaty of (1784)-
  77. Under the agreement, Spain ceded Florida to the UnitedStates, which, in exchange, abandoned its claims to Texas.
    Florida Purchase Treaty (Adams-Onís Treaty) (1819)-
  78. Passed by Congress alongside the Compromise Tariff, it authorized the president to use the military to collect federal tariff duties.
    Force Bill
  79. Passed as part of the Compromise of 1850, it set high penalties for anyone who aided escaped slaves and compelled all law enforcement officers to participate in retrieving runaways. Strengthened the antislav ery cause in the North.
    Fugitive Slave Law
  80.  Signed by GreatBritain and the United States, it provided that the two nations would jointlyprotect the neutrality of Central America and that neither power would seek tofortify or exclusively control any future isthmian waterway. Later revoked bythe Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901, which gave the United States control of thePanama Canal
    Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850)-
  81. Passed as a measure to resolve the nullification crisis, itprovided that tariffs be lowered gradually, over a period of ten years, to 1816levels.
    Compromise Tarriff of 1833
  82. Admitted Cal i fornia as a free state, opened New Mexico andUtah to popular sovereignty, ended the slave rade (but not slav ery itself ) inWashington D.C., and introduced a more stringent fugitive slave law. Widelyopposed in both the North and South, it did little to settle the escalatingdispute over slav ery.
    Compromise of 1850
  83. Alleged deal between presidential candidates John QuincyAdams and Henry Clay to throw the election, to be decided by the House ofRepresentatives, in Adams’ favor. Though never proven, the accusation becamethe rallying cry for supporters of Andrew Jackson, who had actually garnered aplurality of the popular vote in 1824.
    Corrupt bargain
  84. Conflict between Britain and the United States thatprecipitated the 1807 embargo. The conflict developed when a British ship, insearch of deserters, fired on the American Chesapeake off the coast ofVirginia.
    Cheasapeake affair
  85. Agreement to formally dissolve the United States’ treaty with France, originally signed during the Revolutionary War. The difficulties posed by America’s peacetime alliance with France contributed to Americans’ longstanding opposition to entangling alliances with foreign powers.
    convention of 1800
  86. Dominant theological credo of the New England Puritans basedon the teachings of John Calvin. Calvinists believed in predestination—thatonly “the elect” were destined for salvation.
  87. - The transfer of goods, crops, and diseases between New andOld World societies after 1492.
    columbian exchange
  88. Economic system characterized by private property, generallyfree trade, and open and accessible markets. European colonization of theAmericas, and in particular, the discovery of vast bullion deposits, helpedbring about Europe’s transition to capitalism.
  89. Inflow of thousands of miners to Northern Cal i fornia afternews reports of the discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill in January of 1848 hadspread around the world by the end of that year. The onslaught of migrantsprompted Californians to organize a government and apply for statehood in 1849.
    California Gold Rush
  90. Antislavery party in the 1848 and 1852 elections that opposedthe extension of slavery into the territories, arguing that the presence ofslav ery would limit opportunities for free laborers.
    Free soil party
  91. (in the context of the slavery debate) Notion that thesovereign people of a given territory should decide whether to allow slavery.Seemingly a compromise, it was largely opposed by Northern abolitionists whofeared it would promote the spread of slavery to the territories.
    popular soverignty