ch 26 Protist
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What is a Protist?
- Most varied of all of Earth's creatures
- Have a true Nucleus
- cytoplasmic organells
- Reproduce asexually by mitosis
- sexually by meiosis
what does Unikonta mean?
eukaryotes with single flagellum
What does Bikonta mean?
Eukaryotes with 2 flagella
What are distinguishing traits of Protists?
- lack plant structures
- lack developing embryos
- lack animal systems
- metabolism are heterotrophs and autotrophs
How do Protists move?
- both of the above have microtubules
What are the basic structure of Protists?
- "colonial"= undifferentiated
- have contratile vacuole
- food vaculoes
What is a Pellicle?
- Layer of supportive protein fibers
- located inside cell under plasma membrane
- provides strength and flexibility instead of a cell wall
What are the traits of Excavata?
- Single celled animal parasites (not all are parasites)
- Move by means of flagella
- Scooped out feeding aparatus on ventral surface of the cell
What are the features of Metamonada?
- Are parasites
- consist of the Diplomonadide and Parabasala
What are the features of Diplomonadides?
- Have 2 nuclei
- Move by means of multiple freely beating flagella
- lack mitochondria
- lack clearly defined ER and Golgi complex
- ex. Giardia - camping diahrea from water
What are the features of the Parabasalids?
- Freely beating flagella
- Have undulating membrane
- ex Trichononadis cause irinary tract infection
What is an undulating membrane?
- Fin formed by a flagellum buried in a fold of the cytoplams
- allows to move through thick viscous fluids
What are the features of Euglenozoa?
- Almost all single-celled motile cells that swim by means of flagella
- Mitochondria characterized by disc shaped cristae
What is cristae?
inner mitochondrial membranes
What are the characteristics of Euglenids?
- anterior flagella movement
- Euglenid movment (like an inch worm)
What are the features of Kinetoplasts?
- Undulating membrane
- Single mitochondria in a cell
- have 2 flagella
- ex. trpansome = african sleeping sickness
What consists of the Chromalervolates?
Alveolata and Stramenopila groups
What are the features of the Alveolates?
Small, flattened, membrane bound veicles called alveoli in a layer under plasma membrane
What are the features of the Ciliophora
- Highly complex heterotrophic organisms
- Swim by cila
- have contractile vacuoles
- have 2 types of nuclei in each cell
- A macronucleus and a micronucleus
What are the micronuclei and macronucleus in relation to the Ciliophora?
- Micronuclei function primarilly in cellular reproduction
- Macronucleus develops from a micronuclei and eventually disintergrates during fission, or conjugation
What are the features of the Dinoflagellata?
- Some are bioluminescent
- Form "red tides" due to a bloom in population
What are the features of the Apicomlexa?
- Nonmotile parasites of animals
- Absorb nutrients through plasma membrane via diffusion
- sexual and asexual reproduction
List the characteristics of Stramenopila
- Have 2 different flagella
- #1 has hollow triparticle projections that give flagella a hairy appearance
- #2 is plain flagella
The Stramenopila includes:
What are the features of Oomycota?
- "fungus like"
- secrete enzymes that digest complex molecules
- Grow as hyphae
- Nuclei in hyphae are diploid
What are hyphae?
- nonmotile filaments
- form a network called mycelium
What are the features of Bacillariophytes? "Diatoms"
- Single celled
- 2 halves of a "candybox" glassy silica shell
- 35,000 extinct
- diatomacious earth = dehydration
What are the features of Chrysophyta? "Golden Algae"
- Most are colonial forms
- Have glassy silicon shells in form of plates or scales
What does fucoxanthin do?
What are the features of Phaeophyta? "brown algae"
- Photosynthetic autotrophs
- Inhabit temperate or cool coastal marine waters
- Life cycle alternates from hapoid and diploid generations
- Sporophyte = haploid spores by meiosis
- Gametophyte = haploid gametes
The Rhizarians consist of what 3 groups?
What features do the Radiolara have?
- engulf organisms and digest them in food vacuoles
- silicon shell
What are the features of Foraminifera?
- Shells consist of organic matter which is reinforced by calcium carbonate
- Shells are chambered spiral structures
What does the Archaeplastida consist of?
- Viridaeplanta (true plants)
What are the features of Rhodophyta? "red algae"
- are small marine seaweeds
- Used in food and as a thickener
- some have calcium carbonate shells
What are the features of the Chlorophyta? "green algae"
- single-celled, colonial, and multicellular species
The Unikonts include:
Protists that are closely related to animals and fungi
What do the Unikonts consist of?
Amoebozoa and Opistohokonta
What are the features of the Amoebazoa?
- Include most of the amoebas
- plasmodial slimemolds
- cellular slime molds
What are the features of amoebas?
- Single celled organisms
- feed on bacteria, protists, and organic material
What are the features of slimemolds?
- live on rotting plants
what are the features of cellular slimemolds?
exist primarily as individual cells
What does Opisthokonta consist of?
What are the features of the Choanoflagellated?
- Found in sponges
- live in fresh water and marine
- most are "sessile"= attached via stalk to a surface
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