ch 26 Protist
Card Set Information
ch 26 Protist
ch 26 Protist
What is a Protist?
Most varied of all of Earth's creatures
Have a true Nucleus
Reproduce asexually by mitosis
sexually by meiosis
what does Unikonta mean?
eukaryotes with single flagellum
What does Bikonta mean?
Eukaryotes with 2 flagella
What are distinguishing traits of Protists?
lack plant structures
lack developing embryos
lack animal systems
metabolism are heterotrophs and autotrophs
How do Protists move?
both of the above have microtubules
What are the basic structure of Protists?
have contratile vacuole
What is a Pellicle?
Layer of supportive protein fibers
located inside cell under plasma membrane
provides strength and flexibility instead of a cell wall
What are the traits of Excavata?
Single celled animal parasites (not all are parasites)
Move by means of flagella
Scooped out feeding aparatus on ventral surface of the cell
What are the features of Metamonada?
consist of the Diplomonadide and Parabasala
What are the features of Diplomonadides?
Have 2 nuclei
Move by means of multiple freely beating flagella
lack clearly defined ER and Golgi complex
ex. Giardia - camping diahrea from water
What are the features of the Parabasalids?
Freely beating flagella
Have undulating membrane
ex Trichononadis cause irinary tract infection
What is an undulating membrane?
Fin formed by a flagellum buried in a fold of the cytoplams
allows to move through thick viscous fluids
What are the features of Euglenozoa?
Almost all single-celled motile cells that swim by means of flagella
Mitochondria characterized by disc shaped cristae
What is cristae?
inner mitochondrial membranes
What are the characteristics of Euglenids?
anterior flagella movement
Euglenid movment (like an inch worm)
What are the features of Kinetoplasts?
Single mitochondria in a cell
have 2 flagella
ex. trpansome = african sleeping sickness
What consists of the Chromalervolates?
Alveolata and Stramenopila groups
What are the features of the Alveolates?
Small, flattened, membrane bound veicles called alveoli in a layer under plasma membrane
What are the features of the Ciliophora
Highly complex heterotrophic organisms
Swim by cila
have contractile vacuoles
have 2 types of nuclei in each cell
A macronucleus and a micronucleus
What are the micronuclei and macronucleus in relation to the Ciliophora?
Micronuclei function primarilly in cellular reproduction
Macronucleus develops from a micronuclei and eventually disintergrates during fission, or conjugation
What are the features of the Dinoflagellata?
Some are bioluminescent
Form "red tides" due to a bloom in population
What are the features of the Apicomlexa?
Nonmotile parasites of animals
Absorb nutrients through plasma membrane via diffusion
sexual and asexual reproduction
List the characteristics of Stramenopila
Have 2 different flagella
#1 has hollow triparticle projections that give flagella a hairy appearance
#2 is plain flagella
The Stramenopila includes:
What are the features of Oomycota?
secrete enzymes that digest complex molecules
Grow as hyphae
Nuclei in hyphae are diploid
What are hyphae?
form a network called mycelium
What are the features of Bacillariophytes? "Diatoms"
2 halves of a "candybox" glassy silica shell
diatomacious earth = dehydration
What are the features of Chrysophyta? "Golden Algae"
Most are colonial forms
Have glassy silicon shells in form of plates or scales
What does fucoxanthin do?
What are the features of Phaeophyta? "brown algae"
Inhabit temperate or cool coastal marine waters
Life cycle alternates from hapoid and diploid generations
Sporophyte = haploid spores by meiosis
Gametophyte = haploid gametes
The Rhizarians consist of what 3 groups?
What features do the Radiolara have?
engulf organisms and digest them in food vacuoles
What are the features of Foraminifera?
Shells consist of organic matter which is reinforced by calcium carbonate
Shells are chambered spiral structures
What does the Archaeplastida consist of?
Viridaeplanta (true plants)
What are the features of Rhodophyta? "red algae"
are small marine seaweeds
Used in food and as a thickener
some have calcium carbonate shells
What are the features of the Chlorophyta? "green algae"
single-celled, colonial, and multicellular species
The Unikonts include:
Protists that are closely related to animals and fungi
What do the Unikonts consist of?
Amoebozoa and Opistohokonta
What are the features of the Amoebazoa?
Include most of the amoebas
cellular slime molds
What are the features of amoebas?
Single celled organisms
feed on bacteria, protists, and organic material
What are the features of slimemolds?
live on rotting plants
what are the features of cellular slimemolds?
exist primarily as individual cells
What does Opisthokonta consist of?
What are the features of the Choanoflagellated?
Found in sponges
live in fresh water and marine
most are "sessile"= attached via stalk to a surface