ch 26 Protist

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  1. What is a Protist?
    • Most varied of all of Earth's creatures
    • Have a true Nucleus
    • cytoplasmic organells
    • Reproduce asexually by mitosis 
    • sexually by meiosis
  2. what does Unikonta mean?
    eukaryotes with single flagellum
  3. What does Bikonta mean?
    Eukaryotes with 2 flagella
  4. What are distinguishing traits of Protists?
    • lack plant structures
    • lack developing embryos
    • lack animal systems
    • metabolism are heterotrophs and autotrophs 
  5. How do Protists move? 
    • Flagella
    • Cillia
    • both of the above have microtubules 
  6. What are the basic structure of Protists?
    • "colonial"= undifferentiated
    • have contratile vacuole
    • food vaculoes
    • Pellicle
  7. What is a Pellicle?
    • Layer of supportive protein fibers 
    • located inside cell under plasma membrane
    • provides strength and flexibility instead of a cell wall
  8. What are the traits of Excavata?
    • Single celled animal parasites (not all are parasites)
    • Move by means of flagella
    • Scooped out feeding aparatus on ventral surface of the cell
  9. What are the features of Metamonada?
    • Are parasites
    • consist of the Diplomonadide and Parabasala
  10. What are the features of Diplomonadides?
    • Have 2 nuclei
    • Move by means of multiple freely beating flagella
    • lack mitochondria
    • lack clearly defined ER and Golgi complex
    • ex. Giardia - camping diahrea from water
  11. What are the features of the Parabasalids?
    • Freely beating flagella
    • Have undulating membrane
    • ex Trichononadis cause irinary tract infection
  12. What is an undulating membrane?
    • Fin formed by a flagellum buried in a fold of the cytoplams 
    • allows to move through thick viscous fluids
  13. What are the features of Euglenozoa?
    • Almost all single-celled motile cells that swim by means of flagella
    • Mitochondria characterized by disc shaped cristae
  14. What is cristae?
    inner mitochondrial membranes
  15. What are the characteristics of Euglenids?
    • Photosynthetic
    • anterior flagella movement
    • Euglenid movment (like an inch worm)
    • Autotrophs 
    • Heterotrophs
  16. What are the features of Kinetoplasts?
    • Undulating membrane
    • Single mitochondria in a cell
    • have 2 flagella
    • ex. trpansome = african sleeping sickness
  17. What consists of the Chromalervolates?
    Alveolata and Stramenopila groups
  18. What are the features of the Alveolates?
    Small, flattened, membrane bound veicles called alveoli in a layer under plasma membrane
  19. What are the features of the Ciliophora
    • Highly complex heterotrophic organisms
    • Swim by cila
    • have contractile vacuoles
    • have 2 types of nuclei in each cell
    •    A macronucleus and a micronucleus
  20. What are the micronuclei and macronucleus in relation to the Ciliophora?
    • Micronuclei function primarilly in cellular reproduction
    • Macronucleus develops from a micronuclei and eventually disintergrates during fission, or conjugation
  21. What are the features of the Dinoflagellata?
    • Some are bioluminescent
    • Form "red tides" due to a bloom in population
  22. What are the features of the Apicomlexa?
    • Nonmotile parasites of animals
    • Absorb nutrients through plasma membrane via diffusion
    • sexual and asexual reproduction
  23. List the characteristics of Stramenopila
    • Have 2 different flagella
    • #1 has hollow triparticle projections that give flagella a hairy appearance
    • #2 is plain flagella
  24. The Stramenopila includes:
    • Oomycota
    • Bacillariophyte
    • Chrysophyta
    • Phaeophyta
  25. What are the features of Oomycota?
    • "fungus like"
    • secrete enzymes that digest complex molecules
    • Grow as hyphae
    • Nuclei in hyphae are diploid
  26. What are hyphae?
    • nonmotile filaments
    • form a network called mycelium
  27. What are the features of Bacillariophytes? "Diatoms"
    • Single celled
    • 2 halves of a "candybox" glassy silica shell
    • Autotrophs
    • 35,000 extinct
    • diatomacious earth = dehydration
  28. What are the features of Chrysophyta? "Golden Algae"
    • Most are colonial forms
    • Have glassy silicon shells in form of plates or scales
  29. What does fucoxanthin do?
    Mask chloroplasts?
  30. What are the features of Phaeophyta? "brown algae"
    • Photosynthetic autotrophs
    • Inhabit temperate or cool coastal marine waters
    • Life cycle alternates from hapoid and diploid generations
    • Sporophyte = haploid spores by meiosis
    • Gametophyte = haploid gametes
  31. The Rhizarians consist of what 3 groups?
    • Radiolaria
    • Foraminifera
  32. What features do the Radiolara have?
    • heterotropic
    •  engulf organisms and digest them in food vacuoles 
    • silicon shell
  33. What are the features of Foraminifera?
    • Shells consist of organic matter which is reinforced by calcium carbonate
    • Shells are chambered spiral structures
  34. What does the Archaeplastida consist of?
    • Rhodophyta
    • Chlorophyta
    • Viridaeplanta (true plants)
  35. What are the features of Rhodophyta? "red algae"
    • are small marine seaweeds
    • Used in food and as a thickener 
    • some have calcium carbonate shells
  36. What are the features of the Chlorophyta? "green algae"
    • Autotrophs
    • single-celled, colonial, and multicellular species
  37. The Unikonts include:
    Protists that are closely related to animals and fungi
  38. What do the Unikonts consist of?
    Amoebozoa and Opistohokonta
  39. What are the features of the Amoebazoa?
    • Include most of the amoebas
    • plasmodial slimemolds 
    • cellular slime molds
  40. What are the features of amoebas?
    • Single celled organisms
    • feed on bacteria, protists, and organic material
  41. What are the features of slimemolds?
    • Heterotrophic
    • multicellular
    • live on rotting plants
  42. what are the features of cellular slimemolds?
    exist primarily as individual cells
  43. What does Opisthokonta consist of?
    The Choanoflagellated
  44. What are the features of the Choanoflagellated?
    • Found in sponges
    • live in fresh water and marine
    • most are "sessile"= attached via stalk to a surface
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ch 26 Protist

ch 26 Protist
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