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The 7 Hierarchic System of Organization
- First introduced the idea of evolution in 1859 on his book titled On the Origin of Species.
- Calling evolution a "descent with modification".
Scientific Processes ( 3 Steps)
Hypothesis: Statement or explanation of certain events or happenings
Gathering Data: Gather data to support or refute the hypothesis
Conclusion: Final Result
What makes up water?
- 2 Hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to 1 Oxygen atom
The most significant aspect of water is the _________ of its bonds.
It is the polarity of water that allows for ________ bonding between the molecules
Water has a ______ specific heat value, which allows water to resist _______ in temperature.
Hydrogen bonding also results in strong _______ and _________ properties.
-Cohesion: ability of a molecule to stay bonded
-Adhesion: ability of water to bond to or attract other molecules or substances
When H2O freezes, it forms a lattice, which causes the molecules to spread apart resulting in the phenomenon of __________.
The polarity of water also makes it a good ________; It dissolves a number of different substances.
What are Carbohydrates?
-Generally long chains (polymers) of sugars.
3 different types of Lipids
- -Fatty Acids
Fatty Acids: Saturated
- -Solid @ room temp
- -no double bonds in their hydrocarbon tail
Fatty Acids: Unsaturated
- - Liquid @ room temp
- - have one or more double bond
Which of the 2 fatty acids is the most detrimental? and why?
Saturated fats because it can cause cardiovascular problems if high quantities in diets.
What do Phospholipids consist of?
-Consists of 2 fatty acids of varying length bonded to a phosphate group.
- Phosphate is Polar
- Hydrocarbon tail in Non-polar
Where are phospholipids found?
-In cell membranes that creates a barrier that protects the cell.
What are Steroid? what do they do?
-Steroids are components of membranes and many are the precursor to significant hormones.
Which biological molecule is the largest and is the most significant to cellular function?
What are Proteins?
They are polymers if 20 molecules called Amino Acids
Enzymes are particular types of _________ that catalyze different reactions or processes.
Nearly all cellular function is catalyzed by some type of __________.
What are Nucleic Acids?
Components of molecules of inheritance. DNA and RNA
Nucleic Acids: What is DNA?
A unique molecule specific to a particular organism and contains the code that is necessary for replication
Nucleic Acids: What is RNA?
is used as a transfer and as a messenger in most species of the genetic code
The sum of all chemical reactions. In a cell, Metabolic pathways, progresses from a standpoint of high energy to low energy. ALL REACTIONS ARE CATALYZED BY ENZYMES.
The ____ is the fundamental unit of biology.
2 types of cells
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Cells consist of many components, most of which are referred to as __________.
- -Lack a nucleus
- -Does not have membrane-bound organelles
- -Contain nucleus
- -Has membrane bound organelles that carry out instructions from the nucleus.
- -Most complex
- -Contains DNA of the cell in CHROMOSOMES
- -Control center of cell
Contain all of the material for regeneration of the cell. Every organism has a specific number of chromosomes for that particular species.
Read the RNA produced in the nucleus and translate the genetic instructions to produce protein.
Where are Ribosomes found?
- -Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Both are interchangable and have same structure but have slightly different roles
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
-Attached to Nuclear Membrane and consists of two continuous parts, Rough and Smooth ER.
Contains Ribosomes, and is responsible for PROTEIN SYNTHESIS & MEMBRANE PRODUCTION
Doesnt have Ribosomes and functions as the detoxification and metabolism of multiple molecules
Packages, processes, and ships off material from the ER throughout the cell
- -Where intracellular digestion takes place.
- - Packed with enzymes
- -Various function depending on cell type
- - Phagocytosis
- -Produces cell energy
- -found in most eukaryotic cells and are the site of cellular respiration
- -Produce plant cell energy
- - site of photosynthesis
-Most important part of cell. Contributes to protection, communication, and passage way of substances into and out of the cell.
What makes up the Cellular Membrane?
-Consists of a bilayer of phospholipids with proteins, cholesterol, and glycoproteins peppered throughout.
How the Cellular Membrane functions?
There is a Hydrophobic region between the phospholipids making it selectively permeable. Many of the Proteins, which pass completely through the membrane, act as transport highways for molecular movement into and out the cell.
Cellular respiration produces _______
energy than does its anaerobic counterpart.
Cellular Respiration Formula
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -->6CO2 +6H2O
Cellular Respiration 1st Step: Glycolysis
- -Conversion of glucose to pyruvate
- -Takes place in cystol of the cell and produces 2 molecules of ATP, 2 molecules of pyruvate, and 2 molecules of NADH
In Cellular Respirations, _______ is used as a currency cell and _______ acts as a reducing agent and is a vehicle of stored energy.
Cellular Respiration 2nd Step: Krebs Cycle
- -Takes place in matrix of mitochondrion
- -Pyruvate is transported into a mitochondrion and used in the first of a series of reactions.
- -For a single consumed glucose molecule, 2 ATP molecules, 6 molecules of Carbon Dioxide, and 6 NADH molecules are produced.
Cellular Respiration 3rd Step: Electron Transport Chain
- -Begins with oxidation of the NADH molecules to produce oxygen and finally to produce water in a series of steps.
- -For every glucose molecule, 28 to 38 ATP molecules can be produced.
Cellular Respiration results in an overall ATP production numbers of ___ to ___ ATP molecules for every single glucose molecule consumed.
32 to 36
6CO2 + 6H2O + Light Energy -->C6H12O6 + 6O2
*Reverse from Cellular Respiration with the addition of light energy
Just like glucose is used to produce energy, so too must _______ be used to produce glucose.
1st Stage of Photosynthesis: Light Reactions
- -Convert solar energy to chemical energy.
- -The cell creates ATP by absorbing light and using that same energy to split a water molecule and transfer the electron, thus creating NADPH and ATP, which are later used in the Calvin cycle to produce sugar.
2nd Stage of Photosynthesis: Calvin Cycle
- -The produced sugar is polymerized and stored as a polymer of glucose.
- -These sugars are consumed by organism or by the plant itself to produce energy by cellular respiration.
Cellular Reproduction: Asexual Reproduction 2 types
-Binary Fission: (Bacteria Cells) Chromosomes bind to plasma membrane, where it replicates. Then as it grows, it pinches in two, producing two identical cells
-Mitosis: This process of cell division occurs 5 stages before pinching in two in a process called cytokinesis
Asexual Reproduction: Mitosis 5 Stages
Chromosomes are visibly separate, and each duplicated chromosomes has two noticeable sister chromatids
The nuclear envelope begins to disappear, and the chromosomes begins to attach to the spindle fibers that are forming along the the axis of the cell.
All of the chromosomes are aligned along the metaphase plate, or the center of the cell.
Begins when chromasomes start to separate. In this stage the chromatids are considered separate chromosomes.
Chromosomes gather on either side of the now separating cell.
Asexual Reproduction: Cytokinesis
-The pinching of the cell to form two separate identical cells.
Cellular Reproduction: Sexual Reproduction
In sexual reproduction, two cells contribute genetic material to the daughter cells, resulting in significantly greater variation. The two cells find and fertilize each other randomly, making it virtually impossible for cells to be alike.
The process that determines how reproductive cells divide in a sexually reproducing organism is called _______.
What are the stages of meiosis and what are the results?
- -Meiosis one and Meiosis two
- -Resulting in 4 daughter cells containing half as many chromosomes as the parent.
- -Precedes meiosis
- -During this stage, the chromosomes are being duplicated and the cell prepares for division.
Who discovered the basic principles of genetics?
Two alternative versions of a gene. Being either dominant or recessive.
When both alleles are the same type
When the alleles are different types.
Possible to predict the genotype ( the combination of alleles) and phenotype (what traits will be expressed) of the offspring of sexual reproduction.
What is this?
*Not all genes express themselves according to these simple rules, but they are the basis for all genetic understanding.
What are the capital letters? and the lowercase?
- Capital is the Dominant trait
- Lowercase is the Recessive trait
Human disorders can be detected by studying a person's chromosomes or by creating a ________, which is a family tree with traces and occurrences of a certain traits through several generations.
Genetic material of a cell and vehicle of inheritance
What 4 nitrogenous bases is DNA composed of?
Who were the firsts to describe DNA? and in what year?
Each base forms ________ bonds with another base on the complementary strand.
Adenine bonds with________ & Guanine bonds with _______.
During _________, the strands are separated. Then, with the help of several ________, new complementary strands to each of the two original strands are created. These produce two new double-stranded segments of DNA identical to the original.
Each gene along a strand of DNA is a template for _________ ___________.
Process where DNA is transcribed in RNA strand.
What is the RNA in which DNA was transcribed called?
mRNA (Messenger RNA)
What nitrogenous base is substituted in a RNA strand?
Thymine is substituted for Uracil
mRNA functions as a ________ from the original DNA helix in the nucleus to the ribosomes in cytosol of on the rough ER.
The mRNA slides through the ribosome to be read in groups of 3, which are called ________
Each codon codes for a specific ______ ______.
The _______ is located on a unit called ______ ,which carries a specific amino acid.
- tRNA (transfer RNA)
Each _____ _____ is bonded together and released by the preceding tRNA molecule, creating an elongated chain of amino acids.
Eventually, the chain of amino acids is ended at what is called a ______ codon.
Once the stop codon is reached, the chain is released into cytoplasm, and the _______ is completed.