HESI Biology

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HESI Biology
2013-01-18 22:17:13
HESI Biology

Biology portion of the HESI
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  1. The 7 Hierarchic System of Organization
    • -Kingdom
    • -Phylum
    • -Class
    • -Order
    • -Family 
    • -Genus
    • -Species

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  2. Charles Darwin
    • First introduced the idea of evolution in 1859 on his book titled On the Origin of Species. 
    • Calling evolution a "descent with modification".
  3. Scientific Processes ( 3 Steps)
    Hypothesis: Statement or explanation of certain events or happenings

    Gathering Data: Gather data to  support or refute the hypothesis

    Conclusion: Final Result
  4. What makes up water?
    • 2 Hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to 1 Oxygen atom
    • (H2O)
  5. The most significant aspect of water is the _________ of its bonds.
  6. It is the polarity of water that allows for ________ bonding between the molecules
  7. Water has a ______ specific heat value, which allows water to resist _______ in temperature.
    • -High
    • -Shifts
  8. Hydrogen bonding also results in strong _______  and _________ properties.
    -Cohesion: ability of a molecule to stay bonded

    -Adhesion: ability of water to bond to or attract other molecules or substances
  9. When H2O freezes, it forms a lattice, which causes the molecules to  spread apart  resulting in the phenomenon of __________.
  10. The polarity of water also makes it a good ________; It dissolves a number of different substances.
  11. What are Carbohydrates?
    -Generally long chains (polymers) of sugars.
  12. 3 different types of Lipids
    • -Fatty Acids
    • -Phospholipids
    • -Steroids
  13. Fatty Acids: Saturated
    • -Solid @ room temp
    • -no double bonds in their hydrocarbon tail
  14. Fatty Acids: Unsaturated
    • - Liquid @ room temp
    • - have one or more double bond
  15. Which of the 2 fatty acids is the most detrimental? and why?
    Saturated fats because it can cause cardiovascular problems if high quantities in diets. 
  16. What do Phospholipids consist of?
    -Consists of 2 fatty acids of varying length bonded to a phosphate group.

    • Phosphate is Polar
    • Hydrocarbon tail in Non-polar
  17. Where are phospholipids found?
    -In cell membranes that creates a barrier that protects the cell.
  18. What are Steroid? what do they do?
    -Steroids are components of membranes and many are the precursor to significant hormones.
  19. Which biological molecule is the largest and is the most significant to cellular function?
  20. What are Proteins?
    They are polymers if 20 molecules called Amino Acids
  21. Enzymes are particular types of _________ that catalyze different reactions or processes.
  22. Nearly all cellular function is catalyzed by some type of __________.
  23. What are Nucleic Acids?
    Components of molecules of inheritance. DNA and RNA
  24. Nucleic Acids: What is DNA?
    A unique molecule specific to a particular organism and contains the code that is necessary for replication
  25. Nucleic Acids: What is RNA?
    is used as a transfer and as a messenger in most species of the genetic code
  26. Metabolism
    The sum of all chemical reactions. In a cell, Metabolic pathways, progresses from a standpoint of high energy to low energy. ALL REACTIONS ARE CATALYZED BY ENZYMES.
  27. The ____ is the fundamental unit of biology.
  28. 2 types of cells
    Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
  29. Cells consist of many components, most of which are referred to as __________.
  30. Prokaryotes
    • -Lack a nucleus
    • -Does not have membrane-bound organelles
  31. Eukaryotes
    • -Contain nucleus
    • -Has membrane bound organelles that carry out instructions from the nucleus.
    • -Most complex
  32. Nucleus
    • -Contains DNA of the cell in CHROMOSOMES
    • -Control center of cell
  33. Chromosomes
    Contain all of the material for regeneration of the cell. Every organism has a specific number of chromosomes for that particular species.
  34. Ribosomes
    Read the RNA produced in the nucleus and translate the genetic instructions to produce protein.
  35. Where are Ribosomes found?
    • -Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • -Cytoplasm

    Both are interchangable and have same structure but have slightly different roles
  36. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    -Attached to Nuclear Membrane and consists of two continuous parts, Rough and Smooth ER.
  37. Rough ER
    Contains Ribosomes, and is responsible for PROTEIN SYNTHESIS & MEMBRANE PRODUCTION
  38. Smooth ER
    Doesnt have Ribosomes and functions as the detoxification and metabolism of multiple molecules
  39. Golgi Apparatus
    Packages, processes, and ships off material from the ER throughout the cell
  40. Lysosomes
    • -Where intracellular digestion takes place.
    • - Packed with enzymes
  41. Vacuoles
    • -Various function depending on cell type
    • - Phagocytosis
  42. Mitochondria
    • -Produces cell energy
    • -found in most eukaryotic cells and are the site of cellular respiration
  43. Chloroplasts
    • -Produce plant cell  energy
    • - site of photosynthesis
  44. Cellular Membrane
    -Most important part of cell. Contributes to protection, communication, and passage way of substances into and out of the cell.
  45. What makes up the Cellular Membrane?
    -Consists of a bilayer of phospholipids with proteins, cholesterol, and glycoproteins peppered throughout. 
  46. How the Cellular Membrane functions?
    There is a Hydrophobic region between the phospholipids making it selectively permeable. Many of the Proteins, which pass completely through the membrane, act as transport highways for molecular movement into and out the cell.
  47. Cellular respiration produces _______
    energy than does its anaerobic counterpart.
  48. Cellular Respiration Formula
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 -->6CO+6H2O
  49. Cellular Respiration 1st Step: Glycolysis
    • -Conversion of glucose to pyruvate
    • -Takes place in cystol of the cell and produces 2 molecules of ATP, 2 molecules of pyruvate, and 2 molecules of NADH
  50. In Cellular Respirations, _______ is used as a currency cell and _______ acts as a reducing agent and is a vehicle of stored energy.
    • -ATP
    • -NADH
  51. Cellular Respiration 2nd Step: Krebs Cycle
    • -Takes place in matrix of mitochondrion
    • -Pyruvate is transported into a mitochondrion and used in the first of a series of reactions.
    • -For a single consumed glucose molecule, 2 ATP molecules, 6 molecules of Carbon Dioxide, and 6 NADH molecules are produced.
  52. Cellular Respiration 3rd Step: Electron Transport Chain
    • -Begins with oxidation of the NADH molecules to produce oxygen and finally to produce water in a series of steps.
    • -For every glucose molecule, 28 to 38 ATP molecules can be produced.
  53. Cellular Respiration results in an overall ATP production numbers of ___ to ___ ATP molecules for every single glucose molecule consumed.
    32 to 36
  54. Photosynthesis Formula
    6CO2 + 6H2O + Light Energy -->C6H12O+ 6O2

    *Reverse from Cellular Respiration with the addition of light energy
  55.  Just like glucose is used to produce energy, so too must _______ be used to produce glucose.
  56. 1st Stage of Photosynthesis: Light Reactions
    • -Convert solar energy to chemical energy.
    • -The cell creates ATP by  absorbing light and using that same energy to split a water molecule and transfer the electron, thus creating NADPH and ATP, which are later used in the Calvin cycle to produce sugar.
  57. 2nd Stage of Photosynthesis: Calvin Cycle
    • -The produced sugar is polymerized and stored as a polymer of glucose.
    • -These sugars are consumed by organism or by the plant itself to produce energy by cellular respiration.
  58. Cellular Reproduction: Asexual Reproduction 2 types
    -Binary Fission: (Bacteria Cells) Chromosomes bind  to plasma membrane, where it replicates. Then as it grows, it pinches in two, producing two identical cells

    -Mitosis: This process of cell division  occurs 5 stages before pinching in two in a process called cytokinesis
  59. Asexual Reproduction: Mitosis 5 Stages
    • -Prophase
    • -Prometaphase
    • -Metaphase 
    • -Anaphase
    • -Telophase
  60. Prophase
    Chromosomes are visibly separate, and each duplicated chromosomes has two noticeable sister chromatids
  61. Prometaphase
    The nuclear envelope begins to disappear, and the chromosomes begins to attach to the spindle fibers that are forming along the the axis of the cell.
  62. Metaphase
    All of the chromosomes are aligned along the metaphase plate, or the center of the cell.
  63. Anaphase
    Begins when chromasomes start to separate. In this stage the chromatids are considered  separate chromosomes.
  64. Telophase
    Chromosomes gather on either side of the now separating cell.
  65. Asexual Reproduction: Cytokinesis
    -The pinching of the cell to form two separate identical cells.
  66. Cellular Reproduction: Sexual Reproduction
    In sexual reproduction, two cells contribute genetic material to the daughter cells, resulting in significantly greater variation. The two cells find and fertilize  each other randomly, making it virtually impossible for cells to be alike.
  67. The process that determines how reproductive  cells divide in a sexually reproducing organism is called _______.
  68. What are the stages of meiosis and what are the results?
    • -Meiosis one and Meiosis two
    • -Resulting in 4 daughter cells containing half as many chromosomes as the parent.
  69. Interphase
    • -Precedes meiosis 
    • -During this stage, the chromosomes are being duplicated and the cell prepares for division.
  70.  Who discovered the basic principles of genetics?
    George Mendel
  71. Alleles
    Two alternative versions of a gene. Being either dominant or recessive.
  72. Homozygous
    When both alleles are the same type
  73. Heterozygous
    When the alleles are different types.
  74. Punnett Square
    Possible to predict the genotype ( the combination of alleles) and phenotype (what traits will be expressed) of the offspring of sexual reproduction.
  75. What is this?
    Punnett Square

    *Not all genes express themselves according to these simple rules, but they are the basis for all genetic understanding.
  76. What are the capital letters? and the lowercase?
    • Capital is the Dominant trait
    • Lowercase is the Recessive trait
  77.  Human disorders can be detected by studying a person's chromosomes or by creating a ________, which is a family tree with traces and occurrences of a certain traits through several generations.
  78. Genetic material of a cell and vehicle of inheritance
  79. What 4 nitrogenous bases is DNA composed of?
    • -Adenine
    • -Thymine
    • -Guanine
    • -Cytosine
  80. Who were the firsts to describe DNA? and in what year?
    • -Watson & Crick
    • -1953
  81. Each base forms ________ bonds with another base on the complementary strand.
  82. Adenine bonds with________ & Guanine bonds with _______.
    • -Thymine
    • -Cytosine
  83. Protein Synthesis
  84. During _________, the strands are separated. Then, with the help of several ________, new complementary strands to each of the two original strands are created. These produce two new double-stranded segments of DNA identical to the original.
    • -Replication
    • -Enzymes
  85. Each gene along a strand of DNA is a template for _________ ___________.
    Protein Synthesis
  86. Transcription
    Process where DNA is transcribed in RNA strand.
  87. What is the RNA in which DNA was transcribed called?
    mRNA (Messenger RNA)
  88. What nitrogenous base is  substituted in a RNA strand?
    Thymine is substituted for Uracil
  89. mRNA functions as a ________ from the original DNA helix in the nucleus to the ribosomes in cytosol of on the rough ER.
  90. The mRNA slides through the ribosome to be read in groups of 3, which are called  ________
  91. Each codon codes for a specific ______ ______.
    Amino Acid
  92. The _______ is located on a unit called ______ ,which carries a specific amino acid.
    • anticodon
    • tRNA (transfer RNA)
  93. Each _____ _____ is bonded together and released by the preceding tRNA molecule, creating an elongated  chain of amino acids. 
    amino acid
  94. Eventually, the chain of amino acids is ended at what is called a ______ codon.
  95. Once the stop codon is reached, the chain is released  into cytoplasm, and the _______ is completed.