Immunology 1

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Immunology 1
2013-01-19 17:50:33
Animal Diseases One

Animal Diseases
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  1. What are the primary lymphoid organs?
    • thymus
    • bone marrow in mammals
    • bursa or fabricius in birds
  2. When is the thymus most active and when is its maximum development?
    • most active early in life
    • maximum development at puberty
  3. What are the secondary lymphoid organs?
    • lymph nodes
    • spleen
    • other lymphoid tissue (lymphocytes distributed in bronchial and GI mucosa and peyer's patches)
  4. Where are the Peyer's patches?
    in the ileum
  5. What do the primitive hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow give rise to?
    • lymphoid cells
    • erythromyeloid cells
  6. What do lymphoid cells give rise to?
    lymphocytes (B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes)
  7. What are B lymphocytes?
    mature into plasma cells which secrete antibodies (immunoglobulins)
  8. What are T lymphocytes?
    mediate cell-mediated immune reactions
  9. What are the cell-mediated immune reactions that T-lymphocytes mediate?
    • cell lysis
    • phagocytosis
    • produce substances that direct cell functions
  10. What are the erythromyeloid cells?
    • erythrocytes
    • megakaryocytes (platelets)
    • neutrophils
    • monocytes (macrophages)
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  11. What do the precursors to T lymphocytes migrate to?
    migrate to the thymus (primary lymphoid organ)
  12. Where do the precursors to B lymphocytes go?
    bone marrow (primary lymphoid organ)
  13. What happens once T and B lymphocytes enter blood circulation?
    they colonize secondary lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, spleen, etc)
  14. How do we tell the difference between T and B lymphocytes?
    • cannot be distinguished by light or electron microscopy
    • can test to identify certain molecules on their cell membranes
  15. Where do T lymphocytes mature?
    in the thymus
  16. What are the subsets of T lymphocytes?
    • T helper cells
    • T cytotoxic cells
    • T memory cells
    • natural killer cells
  17. In normal human blood, there are about _____ as many T helper cells as T cytotoxic cells.
  18. What happens once T helper cells are activated?
    they divide rapidly and secrete small proteins called cytokines that require or assist in the immune response
  19. What are cytokines?
    a group of regulatory molecules
  20. What do T cytotoxic cells do?
    mediate killing of virus-infected or tumor cells that are recognized by the body as foreign
  21. What are T memory cells? 
    • inactive clones of Ag sensitized T cells - persist long-term after an infection has resolved.
    • multiply upon re-exposure to "their" antigen
    • speed up the immune response the next time the Ag is encountered by the body
  22. What are natural killer cells?
    • T cells that do not recognize specific Ag
    • do not require previous sensitization
    • are part of the innate immunity
  23. What are B lymphocytes?
    lymphocytes that will differentiate into immunoglobulins-producing plasma cells
  24. Which cells are the site of synthesis of immunoglobulins?
    plasma cells
  25. What is RER and which cells have lots of this?
    • rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • plasma cells