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What is immunology?
the study of immunity
What is immunity?
how the body protects itself against "non-self" (microorganisms, toxins, parasites, etc)
Can the body develop an immune response to neoplastic cells?
Can the body develop an immune response to itsefl?
yes, autoimmune disease
What does the immune system react against?
substances that are perceived as foreign to the body
Can the body decide if part of itself is "foreign" or "not-self"?
Can the body consider cancer cells to be "self" and not destroy them?
What are the two main lines of defense against "non-self"?
- innate or non-specific immune system
- adaptive or specific immune system
Both types of immunity require what components?
cellular and humoral
What are the cellular components?
macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, etc
What are the humoral components?
humoral means derived from fluid - molecules - non cellular - antibodies, complement
What is another term for innate immune system?
Describe innate immunity.
- born with it
- there is immediately maximum response
- not antigen-specific
- no immunologic memory
What is another term for adaptive immune system?
Describe adaptive immunity.
- response is antigen-dependent
- there is a lag-time between exposure and maximum response
- exposure results in immunologic memory
What does the innate immune system include?
- barrier tissues - skin
- physical forces - mucociliary apparatus
- secretory substances - gastric acid
- inflammatory response
- natural killer cells
What do barrier tissues do?
prevents physical entrance to the body
What can break barrier tissues?
cuts and burns
What happens if a barrier tissue is broken?
microbes can enter tissue and cause infection (usually causes acute inflammation)
What are the cellular components of the innate immune system?
- natural killer cells
- basophils, mast cells, platelets
What do neutrophils and macrophages do in the innate immune system?
phagocytes - will attack and kill invading microorganisms
What do natural killer cells do in the innate immune system?
a type of T lymphocyte - are not part of the inflammatory response - kill virus infected and tumor cells
What do eosinophils do in the innate immune system?
have proteins in their granules that can kill certain parasites
Which cells play a role in both innate and adaptive immunity?
- APC - antigen presenting cells
- assorted leukocytes - help to activate helper T cells (part of the adaptive immunity)
- dendritic cells, macrophages
What is part of the humoral component of the innate immune system?
- coagulation factors
- lactoferrin, transferrin
What is complement and what does it do?
- a group of serum proteins
- can lyse bacteria, can opsonize bacteria for enhanced phagocytosis, can recruit and activate phagocytes
What do coagulation factors do?
- increases vascular permeability
- attracts phagocytic cells
- some are directly antimicrobial
What do lactoferrin, transferrin do?
bind iron (which is the essential nutrient for bacteria)
What are interferons?
proteins that can limit virus replication in cells
What are lysozymes and what do they do?
- non-specific bacteriocidal protein found in tears, nasal and intestinal secretions
- breaks down the cell wall of bacteria
Adaptive immunity is based on the body's ability to do what?
- distinguish "self" from "non-self"
- remember antigens it has encountered
What is the humoral component of the adaptive immune system?
What is the cellular component of the adaptive immune system?
What do the B lymphocytes differentiate into?
plasma cells that make antibodies
What do the T cells differentiate into?
- Tc - T cytotoxic cells
- Th - T helper cells
What is an antibody and what does it do?
- an immunoglobulin molecule that combines with the specific antigen that induced its formation
- made in the body
- the defense, the good guys
What is an antigen and what does it do?
- a substance foreign to the body, that can induce a specific immune response
- foreign proteins, toxins, bacteria, viruses, etc
- the enemy offense, the bad guys
What are the main effects of antibody binding to a microorganism?
- fix or bind complement to lyse the microorganism
- opsonize - permit the microogranism to be phagocytized
What is opsonin?
a substance (protein) which binds to the surface of a particle, enhancing its uptake by a phagocyte
What are the components of applied immunology?
- immunopreventive techniques (vaccinations)
What is immunodiagnostics?
diagnosis by immune reaction (allergic skin testing and immunofluorescent tagging to identify certain conditions)
What are some examples of immunotherapy?
- bone marrow or thymus transplants
- allergic hyposensitization
- immunopotentiators (substances which stimulate the immune system)
- passive immunization
What is passive immunization?
give patient pre-formed antibodies, which have been actively produced in another individual
What does adaptive immunity include?
- active immunity
- passive immunity
What is active immunity?
- individual is exposed to an antigen (naturally or by vaccination)
- makes his own antibodies
What is passive immunity?
the transfer of antibodies from a donor to a recipient for temporary immunity (donor makes the antibodies)
What are the different routes of passive immunity?
How do we use serum for passive immunity?
- donor animal is exposed to the antigen and makes antibodies
- donor animals serum is harvested and then injected into the recipient
How does colostrum provide passive immunity?
these large protein molecules are able to cross the very permeable neonatal GI mucosa into the baby's blood
How does transplacental provide passive immunity?
mother's antibodies cross the placenta and enter the fetus during gestation
How does yolk provide passive immunity?
- for birds
- mother's antibodies are present in the yolk and the chick incorporates antibodies during incubation