Biology 101 Chapter 1

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  1. Biology
    The scientific study of life
  2. Atom
    Fundamental building block of all matter
  3. Biosphere
    All regions of Earth where organisms live
  4. Cell
    Smallest unit of life
  5. Community
    All populations of all species in a given area
  6. Ecosystem
    A community interacting with its environment
  7. Emergent Property
    A characteristic of a system that does not appear in any of the system's component parts. 
  8. Molecule
    An association of two or more atoms
  9. Organ
    In multicelled organisms, a grouping of tissues engaged in a collective task
  10. Organ System
    In multicelled organisms, set of organs engaged in a collective task that keeps the boy functioning properly
  11. Population
    Group of interbreeding individuals of the same species that live in a given area
  12. Tissue
    In multicelled organisms, specialized cells organized in a pattern that allows them to perform a collective function
  13. Consumer
    Organism that gets energy and nutrients by feeding on tissues, wastes, or remains of other organisms
  14. Development
    Multistep process by which the first cell of a new individual becomes a multicelled adult
  15. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid; carries hereditary information that guides development and functioning
  16. Energy
    The capacity to do work
  17. Growth
    In multicelled species, an increase in the number, size, and volume of cells
  18. Homeostasis
    Set of processes by which an organism keeps its internal conditions within tolerable ranges
  19. Inheritance
    Transmission of DNA to offspring
  20. Nutrient
    Substance that an organism needs for growth and survival, but cannot make for itself
  21. Photosynthesis
    Process by which producers use light energy to make sugars from carbon dioxide and water
  22. Producer
    Organism that makes its own food using energy and simple raw materials from the environment
  23. Reproduction
    Processes by which individuals produce offspring
  24. Animal
    Multicelled consumer that develops through a series of stages and moves about during part or all of its life cycle
  25. Archaeon
    Member of a group of single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus but are more closely related to eukaryotes than to bacteria
  26. Bacterium
    Member of the most diverse and well-known group of single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus
  27. Biodiversity
    Scope of variation among living organisms
  28. Eukaryote
    Organism whose cells characteristically have a nucleus
  29. Fungus
    Single-celled or multicelled eukaryotic consumer that digests material outside its body, then absorbs released nutrients
  30. Nucleus
    Double-membraned sac that encloses a cell's DNA
  31. Plant
    A multicelled, typically photosynthetic producer
  32. Protist
    Member of a diverse group of simple eukaryotes
  33. Genus
    A group of species that share a unique set of traits; also the first part of a species name
  34. Species
    Unique type of organism
  35. Specific epithet
    Second part of a species name
  36. Taxon
    A group of organisms that share a unique set of features
  37. Taxanomy
    The science of naming and classifying species
  38. Trait
    An observable characteristic of an organism or species
  39. Control Group
    In an experiment, a group of individuals who are not exposed to the independent variable being tested
  40. Critical Thinking
    Judging information before accepting it
  41. Data
    Experimental results
  42. Deductive reasoning
    Using a general idea to make a conclusion about a specific case
  43. Dependent variable
    In an experiment, a variable that is presumably affected by the independent variable being tested
  44. Experiment
    A test designed to support or falsify a prediction
  45. Experimental Group
    In an experiment, group of individuals who are exposed to the independent variable
  46. Hypothesis
    Testable explanation of a natural phenomenon
  47. Independent Variable
    Variable that is controlled by an experimenter in order to explore its relationship to a dependent variable. 
  48. Inductive Reasoning
    Drawing a conclusion based on observation
  49. Model
    Analogous system used for testing hypothesis
  50. Prediction
    Statement, based on a hypothesis, about a condition that should exist if the hypothesis is correct
  51. Science
    Systematic study of the observable world
  52. Scientific Method
    Making, testing, and evaluating hypotheses
  53. Variable
    In an experiment, a characteristic or event that differs among individuals or over time
  54. Probability
    The chance that a particular outcome of an event will occur; depends on the total number of outcomes possible
  55. Sampling Error
    Difference between results derived from testing an entire group of events or individuals, and results derived from testing a subset of the gorup
  56. Statistically Significant
    Refers to a result that is statistically unlikely to have occurred by chance
  57. Law of Nature
    Generalization that describes a consistent natural phenomenon for which there is incomplete scientific explanation
  58. Scientific Theory
    Hypothesis that has not been disproven after many years of rigorous testing
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Biology 101 Chapter 1
2013-01-16 03:19:36

Invitation to Biology
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