AP Euro Unit 4 Test

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  1. Old Regime Description
    Social, Political, and Economic relations in pre-revolutionary Europe. 
  2. Characteristics of aristocracy in 18th c. Europe
    • 1-5% of population
    • Set tone of polite society
    • Hereditary Birthright
    • Wealthiest
    • No Labor
    • Held most of the power
  3. Facts of French Nobility
    • They were exempt from taille, vingtieme, corvees
    • Nobles of the sword, the robe, Court Nobles, Hoberaux
  4. Features and Facts of Eastern Europe
    • Polish Nobility= Schlachta; held aurthority of life & death.
    • Prussia Nobility= Junker, Frederick the Great
    • Russian Nobles= Boyards, lost a lot power during reign of Peter the Great. Table of Ranks
  5. Aristotic Resurgence 
    The attempts of nobility to respond to social & political influence of monarchy
  6. Economic basis of 18th c. life
    Land, stable crop of wheat & grain
  7. Benefits of English game laws
    • Benefitted: English Nobility Landowners
    • Excluded: Peasantry, Middle Class
  8. Family Economy Characteristics
    • Dominated all social classes
    • Families provided for themselves
    • Everyone pulled their weight
  9. Concerns of married women in pre-industrial Europe
    Provide enough food for family
  10. Characteristics about children in 18th century
    • Sometimes birth of child not welcome, led to orphans, and murders
    • illegitimate birthrate increase
    • Wet Nursing
    • Rise of food prices led to abandonment of children
    • Started to educate kids
  11. Bread prices during 18th century
    Slow & steady rise
  12. Agricultural methods used by the Dutch
    • Built better dikes & leveys, polders
    • Turnips & clover increased folder & help restore soil
  13. Europe's population from 1700 to 1800
    120 million- 190 million
  14. Crops introduced to Europe from New World and their impacts
    Potatoes & Maize/Corn
  15. Jethro Tull
    • Iron Plow
    • Seed Drill
  16. Charles "Turnip" Townsend
    • Fertilizer
    • Rotation of Fields
  17. Bakewell
    Selective Breeding
  18. Enclosure/Movement
    • Consolidated
    • Wasted Land-->Block Land
    • Disruption of society
    • Urban Immigration
    • Produced more crops
  19. Open-Field System
    • 2-3 Field System
    • Not efficient 
    • Adequate Food Supply
  20. Causes, effects, and characteristics of 18th century consumer revolution
    • Population Explosion
    • Disposable Income
    • Capitalism
  21. Industry which pioneered the Industrial Revolution
    Textile production
  22. Water Frame
    • Richard Arkwright
    • *Pure Cotton Fabric
  23. Spinning Jenny
    • James Hargreaves
    • *Produced more thread
    • *Increase of 16 spindles to 120
    • Bottleneck
  24. Flying Shuttle
    • John Kay
    • *Increased woven fabric production
    • Bottleneck
  25. The Power Loom
  26. Uses of Steam Engine
    Prime mover of all types of industries, textile, mining, transportation
  27. Impact of Steam Engine
    Urbanization & Industrialization
  28. Inventors of Steam Engine
    • Thomas Newcomen
    • James Watt
  29. Henry Cort and Iron production during the 18th century
    Couldn't heat enough
  30. Putting-out system of textile production
    • Stuff handed out to peasants to help weave
    • Products then collected and sold to make profit
  31. Reasons for England being the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution
    • London
    • Extensive free trade
    • Mineral Resources
  32. Impact of agricultural and Industrial Revolutions on women
    • Role in workplace diminished
    • Woman get less skilled jobs=less wages
    • No equal role to men
    • Commonly housewives
  33. Locations of main Jewish populations in 18th c.
    • Poland
    • Lithuania
    • Ukraine
    • Ghettos
  34. Stages of European contact with rest of the world since the Renaissance
    • European Discovery & Settlement of New World
    • Mercantile Empires/ Colonial Stage; Trade being engaged
    • Empiralism
    • Mid-late 20th century decentralization of people who lived under European rule
  35. Factors that allowed European nations to dominate the rest of the world
    • Technological supremacy
    • Naval Power
    • Gun Power
  36. Fundamental Institution present during 1st two periods of European imperialism in new world
  37. Main rivals during the era of colonization
    • Spain
    • France
    • Great Britain
  38. Description of Mercantilism
    Economic practice whereby governments heavily regulated commerce & trade for own wealth
  39. Purposes of colonies and home country in Mercantilism
    • Colonies existed to provide markets and natural resources
    • Home country was to protect and administer the colonies
  40. Peninsulares
    People Born in Spain and settled in new world
  41. Purpose of the Spanish Empire until mid 18th century
    Take out precious metals mined in the New World
  42. Formative influences on Enlightenment
    • Isaac Newton
    • John Locke
    • Britain
    • Vast amounts of printed material
  43. Uniqueness of Britain politically and socially leading up to Enlightenment
    Most free nation
  44. Public Opinion
    • Print culture creates literacy, educated society
    • Now think on their own
  45. Print Culture
    • Magazines
    • Newspapers
    • etc...
  46. Creole
    People of European descent born in new world
  47. Two areas of conflict during mid-18th century among great nations
    • Overseas Empire
    • Central & Eastern Europe
  48. Cause and purpose of War of Jenkins' Ear
    • Colonial conflict between England & Spain 
    • They tried to open up avenues & trade routes
    • Jenkin had his ear cut off by Spanish, and took it to parliament. He convinced Robert Walpole to open war with Spain. 
    • Opened flood gates.
  49. Effects of Frederick II's invasion of Silesia
    • Prussia invades Ausria
    • Maria Theresa was in power
    • Able to get support but lost absolute power.
    • France & Britain were drawn in 
    • France with Prussia
    • Britain with Austria
    • France was weakened
  50. Alliances and significance of the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
    • Great change of partners
    • Britain & Prussia
    • France & Austria
  51. Purpose of the Stamp Act
    Raise revenue by British for British
  52. Characteristics of the Intolerable Acts
    • Closed Boston port
    • Allowed groups to be quartered in private houses 
    • Reorganized gov. of Masse with Brit
  53. "Common Sense"
    • Thomas Payne
    • Suggested separation from Britain
    • Revolutionary document
  54. Results/outcomes of the American Revolution concerning slavery, rights and society 
    • Women didn't achieve political equality
    • No new set of elites
    • Did not allow U.S. to become major power, did not end slavery
  55. Reason for American resentment towards British attempts to tax them
    No taxation without representation
  56. Ideas and events that American ideals were based upon
    • 1688 Glorious Revolution
    • English Bill of Rights
    • John Locke
    • Montesquieus
  57. Voltaire's views and literary works on Britain
    • Wisest model of liberal democracy
    • Letters on the English
  58. Voltaire's literary works and their subject matters
    • Most important Candide
    • Mock optimist
  59. Philosophes criticism of Christian Church
    • Mankind was in a state of sin 
    • They believed tabula rosa was based on exper
    • Eccles took to role should separate church & state
    • Focused on after life should be on here & now
  60. Major points of the Deists Creed
    • God exist
    • Rational
    • Life after death
  61. Ethics
    • Baruch Spinoza
    • Drew god and nature close
  62. Moses Medelsohn
    • Leading Jewish Philosopher
    • "Jewish Socrates"
    • Jerusalem
    • On Ecclesiastical Power and Judaism

    • Portrayal for Nathan the Wise
    • Religious Toleration
  63. Pascal's view of Islam
    • Pensees
    • Islam as false religion
  64. Editors, contributors, topics/themes and effects of The Encyclopedia
    • Dederot & d'Alembert
    • Spread enlightenment
    • Religion, government, structure, etc.
  65. On Crimes and Punishments
    • Marquis Cesare Beccaria
    • Attacked torture and Capital Punishment
  66. Adam Smith and views on Mercantilism
    It should be ablolished
  67. The Wealth of Nations
    • Government providing more
    • Four-stage theory
  68. Role and purpose of government according to Adam Smith
    Government should provide schools, armies, navies, roads. 
  69. Adam Smith's four-stage theory
    • Hunting/Gathering
    • Patoral/Herding
    • Agricultural
    • Commercial
  70. Laissez-faire economics
    Limited role for the government
  71. Beliefs of Physiocrats
    Believed governments role was to protect property and permit its owners to use it freely
  72. Rousseau & human nature, evil in the world, views on women and individualism vs. community
    Evil was from the uneven distribution of land
  73. Monesquieu's literary works, views on Govt., England, preffered govt. for France, etc.
    • Lawyer
    • Noble of the Robe
    • Persian Letters 
    • Spirit of the Laws
  74. Philosophes views on women
  75. Characterisitics, themes, examples and supporters of Neoclassical Art
    • Renaissance & Ancient World
    • Embraced by French Revolution & Napoleon
    • Jacques-Louis David
    • Jean-Antoine Houdon
  76. Characterisitics, themes, examples and supporters of Rococo Art
    • Lavish
    • Play of Light
    • Jean-Antoine Watteau
  77. Enlightened absolutism under Frederick the Great & self proclaimed title
    • Promotion through merit
    • Religious toleration
    • "First servant of the state"
  78. Enlightened absolutism under Catherine the Great
    • Limited Administrative Reform
    • Economic Growth
    • Territorial Expansion
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AP Euro Unit 4 Test

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