Anatomy & Physiology

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Anatomy & Physiology
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2013-02-20 06:46:20
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  1. study of body structure
    anatomy
  2. study of how the body works
    physiology
  3. the study of the development of the body from a egg or ovum
    embryology
  4. divides the body into right an left halves
    median or midsagittal plane
  5. divides the body into posterior and anterior sections
    frontal or coronal planes
  6. what divides the body into superior and inferior sections
    horizontal or tansverse planes
  7. standard body position
    anatomical position (standing with palms forward)
  8. what is medial
    torwards the midline of the body
  9. what is lateral
    farther away from the midline
  10. what is proximal
    closer to body or point of origin
  11. what is distal
    away from body or point of origin
  12. what is superior
    higher than
  13. what is cranial
    torwards the head
  14. what is caudal
    torwards the feet
  15. supine position
    lying with face up
  16. prone position
    lying with face down
  17. lateral recumbent
    lying on either side of body
  18. what is peripheral
    surface of structure or outwards part
  19. what involves the physical and chemical breakdown of food
    digestion
  20. the process of absorbtion, storage, and use of foods
    metabolism
  21. the bodies self regulated control of its internal environment
    homeostasis
  22. the smallest unit of life
    cell
  23. viscid jelly like substance in cells
    protoplasm
  24. permeable membrane surrounding the cell
    plasma membrane
  25. process in which gases and solids pass through the cell membrane
    diffusion
  26. small dense center of cells
    nucleus
  27. chromosomes in humans
    46 or 23 pairs
  28. gelatinous substance surrounding nucleus of cell
    cytoplasm
  29. the simplest living organism consists of what
    cell
  30. a unicellular animal
    amoeba
  31. groups of specialized cells similar in structure and function
    tissue
  32. how many types of tissues exist
    four types
  33. the lining tissue of the body
    epithelium
  34. three categories of epithelium tissue
    columnar, cubodial, squamous
  35. microscopic hair in nostrils and ears
    cilia
  36. main protective tissue of the body
    squamous
  37. most widespread tissue of the body
    connective/supporting tissue
  38. tissue that consists of a meshwork of thin fibers that interlace in all directions
    areolar connective tissue
  39. fatty tissue
    adipose tissue
  40. bone tissue
    osseous connective tissue
  41. tissue that moves body
    muscular tissue
  42. striated/striped tissue
    skeletal muscle tissue
  43. smooth or non striated tissue that an individual cant control
    smooth muscle tissue/involuntary tissue used by digestive system
  44. bones in the human body
    206
  45. study of bones?
    osteology
  46. thin outer membrane surrounding the bone that provides nourishment
    periosteum
  47. short bones are what?
    ankle and wrist
  48. bones of the skull, sternum, and scapula
    flat bones
  49. irregular bones are?
    vertebrae, mandible and pelvic bones
  50. bones in the skull?
    28
  51. seams where the skull forms together?
    sutures
  52. opening that permits passage of spinal cord from cranium to spinal column
    foramen magnum
  53. how many facial bones?
    14= 13 immovable and the mandible
  54. zygomatic bones?
    cheeks
  55. vomer bone?
    form the wall separating the two nasal cavaties
  56. lower jaw bone
    mandible
  57. vertebral column consists of how many vertebrae?
    24 + coccyx and sacrum
  58. hole directly behind the body of the vertebrae that forms the passage for the spinal cord
    vertebral foramen
  59. how many vertebrae in cervical spine
    7
  60. first and second vertebrae names?
    atlas and axis
  61. how many thoracic vertebrae are there?
    12
  62. how many lumbar vertebrae are there?
    5
  63. how many rows of ribs?
    12
  64. first seven ribs are called?
    true ribs
  65. last set of 5 ribs are called?
    false ribs
  66. the last two of the false ribs are called?
    floating ribs
  67. what is the landmark in the administration of CPR?
    xiphoid process
  68. shaped like an S- called the collar bone
    clavicle
  69. triangular bone on both sides of upper back
    scapula
  70. longest bone of the upper extremity
    humerus
  71. two main bones of the forearm
    radius and ulna
  72. what side of the forearm is the radius on
    thumb side
  73. how many carpal bones are there?
    8
  74. small bones of the fingers
    phalanges
  75. innominate bone
    hip
  76. name the parts of the hip
    3 bones- ilium, ischium, pubis
  77. in adults the hip bones combine and form a cuplike structure called?
    acetabulum
  78. largest foramen is located in the hip and is called what?
    obturator foramen
  79. thigh bone/ largest bone in body
    femur
  80. oval shaped bone over the knee joint
    patella
  81. bones that develop within a tendon are called?
    sesamoid bones
  82. larger of the two lower leg bones that lies on medial side
    tibia
  83. ankle bones
    tarsus
  84. how many bones form tarsus
    7 bones
  85. strongest tarsus bone
    calcaneus/heel  bone
  86. sole or instep of the foot called?
    metatarsus
  87. tear of ligaments are called
    sprain
  88. simplest type of motion
    gliding
  89. bending of an arm or leg
    flexion
  90. straigtening/unbending of arm or leg
    extension
  91. moving extremity away from body
    abduction
  92. bringing extremity torwards body
    adduction
  93. term used to describe the movement of hips and shoulders
    circumduction
  94. supination is what?
    turning upward
  95. pronation is what?
    turning downward
  96. eversion is?
    turning outward
  97. inversion is?
    turning inward
  98. muscles make up how much of your body weight?
    1/2 of total weight
  99. muscles provide what 3 functions?
    movement, posture, heat
  100. what is a prime mover?
    contracting muscle
  101. relaxing muscle is?
    antagonist
  102. continual state of partial contraction that give muscle a certain firmness
    tonicity
  103. rigor mortis occurs how long after death?
    10 mins- several hours
  104. what muscle has most abundant blood supply
    cardiac muscle
  105. muscle that raises jaw
    temporalis
  106. muscle that raises mandible to close jaw
    masseter-used for mastication of food
  107. what muscles flex the neck and extend the head
    sternocleidomastoid and other neck muscles
  108. trapezium shaped muscles on upper back that extend to midback that lower and raise shoulders
    trapezius
  109. prominent chest muscle that rotate arm inwards
    pectoris major
  110. muscle that raises arm and is most frequent IM injection site
    deltoid
  111. muscle on the anterior surface of the upper arm that rotates the arm outward
    biceps branchi
  112. buttocks muscle used for IM injections
    gluteus
  113. muscle called the hamstring
    biceps femoris
  114. longest muscle in body
    sartorius
  115. muscle used for respiration
    diaphragm
  116. the epidermis is?
    the outer skin layer
  117. second skin layer that blends into deeper tissue
    dermis/ true skin
  118. hair root is imbedded into pit like depression called?
    hair follicle
  119. sabaceous glands are not found on ?
    feet and palms of hand
  120. amount secreted from sweat glands daily
    1 liter
  121. sweat glands in ear canal
    ceriminous glands
  122. circulatory system name
    vascular system
  123. average blood in adult
    5-6 liters
  124. liquid part of blood 92% water
    plasma
  125. plasma percentage in blood
    55%
  126. red blood cells
    erythrocytes
  127. average blood cell per cubic millimeter in men
    5 million
  128. average blood cell per cubic millimeter in women
    4.5 million
  129. red blood cells primary job
    deliver oxygen
  130. red blood cells life span
    100-120 days
  131. organ known as graveyard
    spleen
  132. white blood cells
    leukocytes
  133. normal white blood cell count
    6k-8k
  134. high white blood cell count indicates infection
    15k-20k
  135. abnormally high white blood cell count
    leukocytosis
  136. play important role for caugulation
    platelets or thrombocytes
  137. normal clotting time
    3-5 minutes
  138. disease that prevents caugulation
    hemophilia
  139. outer lining of heart
    pericardium
  140. inner surface of heart
    endocardium
  141. wall inside the heart
    interventricular septum
  142. heart muscle
    myocardium
  143. pacemaker of the heart
    sinoatrial node-SA nodes
  144. average heart beat
    70-80
  145. difference between systolic and diastolic
    pulse pressure
  146. average blood pressure range
    120-150 and 70-90
  147. blood vessels have 3 classes/ arteries have?
    distributors
  148. capillaries are what?
    distributors
  149. veins are called?
    collectors
  150. how many miles of capillaries in human body
    60k mile
  151. largest artery
    aorta
  152. only veins that have freshly oxygenated blood
    pulmonary system
  153. delivers blood to liver
    portal system
  154. vein used for venipuncutre
    median cubital
  155. ankle IV site
    great saphenous vein
  156. fights infective agents in body
    lymphocytes
  157. the "throat" serves respiratory and digestive systems
    pharynx
  158. separates larynx from pharynx
    epiglottis
  159. produces voice
    larynx
  160. thyroid cartilage
    adams apple
  161. wind pipe made of 16-20 cartligenous c shaped rings
    trachea
  162. microscopic air sacs in lungs
    alveoili
  163. terminal branches of the trachea
    bronchi
  164. airtight membranes that cover outside of the lungs
    pleurae
  165. thoracic cavity organs that form a septum between lungs
    mediastinum
  166. muscle for respiration
    diaphragm
  167. nerve that controls diaphragm
    phrenic nerve
  168. normal adult respirations
    14-18
  169. air left in lungs after forceful respirations
    1200ml of residual air
  170. air exchanged with each normal respiration
    tidal air
  171. brains two main divisions
    cerebellum and cerebrum
  172. largest portion of brain
    cerebrum
  173. outer surface/grey matter of brain
    cortex
  174. white matter of brain
    medulla
  175. cerebellum is responsible for
    balance and coordination
  176. control center for vital body functions
    medulla oblongota
  177. 3 layers of membranes lining outer layer of brain/spinal cord
    meninges
  178. strong outer layer of brain
    dura matter
  179. inner highly vascular part of the brain
    pia matter
  180. body's self balancing of its internal environment
    homestasis
  181. hormone that stimulates uterine contractions during pregnancy
    oxytocin
  182. olfactory nerve controls
    smell
  183. hypoglossal nerve controls
    tongue
  184. trochlear nerve controls
    eye movement
  185. master gland of body/ located at base of brain
    pituitary gland
  186. growth hormone responsible for body growth
    somatotropin
  187. daily urine output
    1000-1500 ml
  188. butterfly shaped gland in back of neck
    thyroid
  189. glands on superior surface of kidneys
    adrenal
  190. male gonad
    testes
  191. female gonad
    ovaries
  192. islands of langerhans are part of what organ
    pancreas
  193. sensation of tongue is limited to
    sour sweet bitter salty
  194. clear water fluid that shapes the eyes
    aqueous humor
  195. helps maintain the pressure in the eye
    vitreous humor
  196. outer layer of the eye
    sclera
  197. window of the eye
    cornea
  198. tear producing gland
    lacrimal gland
  199. color of the eye
    iris
  200. responsible for night vision
    rods
  201. daytime vision control
    cones
  202. deflection or bending of light
    refraction
  203. eardrum name
    tympanic membrane
  204. three parts of middle ear
    mallus(hammer) incus(anvil) stape(stirrup)
  205. 36mm long/equalizes internal and external air pressure
    eustachian tube
  206. small snail shaped structure hosuing the organ of corti
    cochlea
  207. organ of hearing
    organ of corti
  208. peristalis
    wavelike motion that food travels though digestive system
  209. passageway from pharynx to stomach
    esophagus
  210. most food is absorbed in
    small intestine
  211. serous lining of stomach cavity
    peritoneum
  212. three parts of small intestine
    duodenum jejunum ileum
  213. majority of small intestine food absorbtion takes place in the
    ileum
  214. three parts of large intestine
    cecum colon rectum
  215. largest gland of body
    liver
  216. large resevoir for urine storage in body
    bladder
  217. bean shaped organs that filter bodily waste
    kidneys
  218. functional units of the kidneys
    nephrons
  219. glomerus capsule
    bowmans capsule
  220. how many gallons of blood pass daily through kidneys
    2,500 gallons
  221. carries urine from kidneys to bladder
    urethra
  222. max amount of urine in bladder
    600ml
  223. connects epididymis to the ejaculatory gland
    vans deferans
  224. transports sperm through the penis out of body
    urethra
  225. chestnut size gland that excretes alkaline fluid for sperm mobility
    prostate gland
  226. pea sized glands that provide lubrication to penis
    cowpers glands/bulbourethral glands
  227. females primary reproductive organ
    ovaries
  228. menstrual cycle is
    28 days
  229. passage from ovaries to uterus
    fallopian tubes
  230. receives embryo-from fertilized egg
    uterus
  231. organ that recieves sperm during intercourse
    vagina
  232. mammory glands
    breasts
  233. low to high fluid concentration transfer in cell
    diffusion
  234. digestive fluid secretions/absorb digested food. tissue name?
    columnar tissue
  235. two most prominent mineral elements of bone
    calcium and phosphorus
  236. head of humerus
    glenoid fossa
  237. two protein substances(actin/myosin) do what?
    muscle contraction
  238. primary thermo-regulation of body
    sweat glands
  239. decreased RBC count could be a medical condition affecting?
    red bone marrow
  240. fibrinogen deficiency affects
    hemmorrage control
  241. what do blood clots do
    prevent loss of blood/start healing/new tissue growth
  242. contraction phase of heart
    systole
  243. impulse receptors of nerve
    dendrites
  244. space in which nerve signal pass through neurons
    synopse
  245. where is cerebral spinal fluid produced
    ventricles of brain
  246. 12 pair cranial nerves/31 pair spinal nerves form
    peripheral nervous system
  247. overproduction of what hormone leads to acromegaly
    somatotropin
  248. calcium levels in blood controlled by which hormone
    parathormone
  249. hormone produced by alpha cells in islands of langerhans
    glucagon
  250. where does fertilization of ovum take place
    fallopian tubes

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