Anatomy & Physiology
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Anatomy & Physiology
study of body structure
study of how the body works
the study of the development of the body from a egg or ovum
divides the body into right an left halves
median or midsagittal plane
divides the body into posterior and anterior sections
frontal or coronal planes
what divides the body into superior and inferior sections
horizontal or tansverse planes
standard body position
anatomical position (standing with palms forward)
what is medial
torwards the midline of the body
what is lateral
farther away from the midline
what is proximal
closer to body or point of origin
what is distal
away from body or point of origin
what is superior
what is cranial
torwards the head
what is caudal
torwards the feet
lying with face up
lying with face down
lying on either side of body
what is peripheral
surface of structure or outwards part
what involves the physical and chemical breakdown of food
the process of absorbtion, storage, and use of foods
the bodies self regulated control of its internal environment
the smallest unit of life
viscid jelly like substance in cells
permeable membrane surrounding the cell
process in which gases and solids pass through the cell membrane
small dense center of cells
chromosomes in humans
46 or 23 pairs
gelatinous substance surrounding nucleus of cell
the simplest living organism consists of what
a unicellular animal
groups of specialized cells similar in structure and function
how many types of tissues exist
the lining tissue of the body
three categories of epithelium tissue
columnar, cubodial, squamous
microscopic hair in nostrils and ears
main protective tissue of the body
most widespread tissue of the body
tissue that consists of a meshwork of thin fibers that interlace in all directions
areolar connective tissue
osseous connective tissue
tissue that moves body
skeletal muscle tissue
smooth or non striated tissue that an individual cant control
smooth muscle tissue/involuntary tissue used by digestive system
bones in the human body
study of bones?
thin outer membrane surrounding the bone that provides nourishment
short bones are what?
ankle and wrist
bones of the skull, sternum, and scapula
irregular bones are?
vertebrae, mandible and pelvic bones
bones in the skull?
seams where the skull forms together?
opening that permits passage of spinal cord from cranium to spinal column
how many facial bones?
14= 13 immovable and the mandible
form the wall separating the two nasal cavaties
lower jaw bone
vertebral column consists of how many vertebrae?
24 + coccyx and sacrum
hole directly behind the body of the vertebrae that forms the passage for the spinal cord
how many vertebrae in cervical spine
first and second vertebrae names?
atlas and axis
how many thoracic vertebrae are there?
how many lumbar vertebrae are there?
how many rows of ribs?
first seven ribs are called?
last set of 5 ribs are called?
the last two of the false ribs are called?
what is the landmark in the administration of CPR?
shaped like an S- called the collar bone
triangular bone on both sides of upper back
longest bone of the upper extremity
two main bones of the forearm
radius and ulna
what side of the forearm is the radius on
how many carpal bones are there?
small bones of the fingers
name the parts of the hip
3 bones- ilium, ischium, pubis
in adults the hip bones combine and form a cuplike structure called?
largest foramen is located in the hip and is called what?
thigh bone/ largest bone in body
oval shaped bone over the knee joint
bones that develop within a tendon are called?
larger of the two lower leg bones that lies on medial side
how many bones form tarsus
strongest tarsus bone
sole or instep of the foot called?
tear of ligaments are called
simplest type of motion
bending of an arm or leg
straigtening/unbending of arm or leg
moving extremity away from body
bringing extremity torwards body
term used to describe the movement of hips and shoulders
supination is what?
pronation is what?
muscles make up how much of your body weight?
1/2 of total weight
muscles provide what 3 functions?
movement, posture, heat
what is a prime mover?
relaxing muscle is?
continual state of partial contraction that give muscle a certain firmness
rigor mortis occurs how long after death?
10 mins- several hours
what muscle has most abundant blood supply
muscle that raises jaw
muscle that raises mandible to close jaw
masseter-used for mastication of food
what muscles flex the neck and extend the head
sternocleidomastoid and other neck muscles
trapezium shaped muscles on upper back that extend to midback that lower and raise shoulders
prominent chest muscle that rotate arm inwards
muscle that raises arm and is most frequent IM injection site
muscle on the anterior surface of the upper arm that rotates the arm outward
buttocks muscle used for IM injections
muscle called the hamstring
longest muscle in body
muscle used for respiration
the epidermis is?
the outer skin layer
second skin layer that blends into deeper tissue
dermis/ true skin
hair root is imbedded into pit like depression called?
sabaceous glands are not found on ?
feet and palms of hand
amount secreted from sweat glands daily
sweat glands in ear canal
circulatory system name
average blood in adult
liquid part of blood 92% water
plasma percentage in blood
red blood cells
average blood cell per cubic millimeter in men
average blood cell per cubic millimeter in women
red blood cells primary job
red blood cells life span
organ known as graveyard
white blood cells
normal white blood cell count
high white blood cell count indicates infection
abnormally high white blood cell count
play important role for caugulation
platelets or thrombocytes
normal clotting time
disease that prevents caugulation
outer lining of heart
inner surface of heart
wall inside the heart
pacemaker of the heart
sinoatrial node-SA nodes
average heart beat
difference between systolic and diastolic
average blood pressure range
120-150 and 70-90
blood vessels have 3 classes/ arteries have?
capillaries are what?
veins are called?
how many miles of capillaries in human body
only veins that have freshly oxygenated blood
delivers blood to liver
vein used for venipuncutre
ankle IV site
great saphenous vein
fights infective agents in body
the "throat" serves respiratory and digestive systems
separates larynx from pharynx
wind pipe made of 16-20 cartligenous c shaped rings
microscopic air sacs in lungs
terminal branches of the trachea
airtight membranes that cover outside of the lungs
thoracic cavity organs that form a septum between lungs
muscle for respiration
nerve that controls diaphragm
normal adult respirations
air left in lungs after forceful respirations
1200ml of residual air
air exchanged with each normal respiration
brains two main divisions
cerebellum and cerebrum
largest portion of brain
outer surface/grey matter of brain
white matter of brain
cerebellum is responsible for
balance and coordination
control center for vital body functions
3 layers of membranes lining outer layer of brain/spinal cord
strong outer layer of brain
inner highly vascular part of the brain
body's self balancing of its internal environment
hormone that stimulates uterine contractions during pregnancy
olfactory nerve controls
hypoglossal nerve controls
trochlear nerve controls
master gland of body/ located at base of brain
growth hormone responsible for body growth
daily urine output
butterfly shaped gland in back of neck
glands on superior surface of kidneys
islands of langerhans are part of what organ
sensation of tongue is limited to
sour sweet bitter salty
clear water fluid that shapes the eyes
helps maintain the pressure in the eye
outer layer of the eye
window of the eye
tear producing gland
color of the eye
responsible for night vision
daytime vision control
deflection or bending of light
three parts of middle ear
mallus(hammer) incus(anvil) stape(stirrup)
36mm long/equalizes internal and external air pressure
small snail shaped structure hosuing the organ of corti
organ of hearing
organ of corti
wavelike motion that food travels though digestive system
passageway from pharynx to stomach
most food is absorbed in
serous lining of stomach cavity
three parts of small intestine
duodenum jejunum ileum
majority of small intestine food absorbtion takes place in the
three parts of large intestine
cecum colon rectum
largest gland of body
large resevoir for urine storage in body
bean shaped organs that filter bodily waste
functional units of the kidneys
how many gallons of blood pass daily through kidneys
carries urine from kidneys to bladder
max amount of urine in bladder
connects epididymis to the ejaculatory gland
transports sperm through the penis out of body
chestnut size gland that excretes alkaline fluid for sperm mobility
pea sized glands that provide lubrication to penis
cowpers glands/bulbourethral glands
females primary reproductive organ
menstrual cycle is
passage from ovaries to uterus
receives embryo-from fertilized egg
organ that recieves sperm during intercourse
low to high fluid concentration transfer in cell
digestive fluid secretions/absorb digested food. tissue name?
two most prominent mineral elements of bone
calcium and phosphorus
head of humerus
two protein substances(actin/myosin) do what?
primary thermo-regulation of body
decreased RBC count could be a medical condition affecting?
red bone marrow
fibrinogen deficiency affects
what do blood clots do
prevent loss of blood/start healing/new tissue growth
contraction phase of heart
impulse receptors of nerve
space in which nerve signal pass through neurons
where is cerebral spinal fluid produced
ventricles of brain
12 pair cranial nerves/31 pair spinal nerves form
peripheral nervous system
overproduction of what hormone leads to acromegaly
calcium levels in blood controlled by which hormone
hormone produced by alpha cells in islands of langerhans
where does fertilization of ovum take place