LAB 1 Anatomy

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LAB 1 Anatomy
2013-03-06 21:00:40
Intro Anatomy

Intro to anatomy
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  1. cell
    a unit of living matter surrounded by a semi-permeable membrane and capable of reproduction in an environment devoid of other living things
  2. biological macromolecules
    large organic molecules that are synthesized from smaller organic components by living organisms.  Four main groups: protein, lipid, polysaccharides and nucleic acids
  3. Lumen
    the hollow space within a tubular organ that is continuous with that of an adjacent organ.
  4. mucosa
    mucous membrane - the lining layer of the tubular organs of the visceral body systems.
  5. NAP
    normal anatomic position
  6. organ
    a body stucture composed of at least two diferent tissues
  7. organelle
    a structural subcomponent of a cell composed of various combinations of biological macromolecules. 
  8. parenchyma
    the functional part of the organ
  9. principles of morphology
    • the structural design features of the body.
    • Include tubulation, stratification, zygomorphism, metamerism, and cavitation
  10. tubulation
    hollowness within an organ that continues into an adjacent organ
  11. stratification
  12. zygomorphism
    bilateral symmetry
  13. metamerism
    linear sequencing
  14. cavitation
    space between organs or solely within a single organ
  15. serosa
    serous membrane - a thin transparent membrane formed of epithelium and connective tissue that lines the thoracic and abdominal cavities. also named pericardium and other names
  16. system
    a group of organs that fulfills a specific function
  17. tissue
    a group of similar cells and their extracellular products
  18. viscus
    (plural = viscera) any organ that belongs to one of the visceral body systems. Such systems have 3 things in common:  tubular design, a mucous membrane lining, and one or more openings at the body surface
  19. medial
    medial - toward or relatively closer to the median plane
  20. lateral
    lateral - away from or relatively farther from the median plane
  21. proximal
    proximal - toward or relatively closer to a reference point. Applied to limbs with reference point at the attachment of the limb to the trunk. when used on a limb, proximal has same meaning as superior
  22. distal
    distal - away from or relatively farther from a reference point. when applied to the limbs same meaning as inferior (except on foot where distal is equivalent to anterior)
  23. ventral
    • ventral - toward or relatively closer to the belly
    • in practice, commonly used to refer to lower aspect/underside of an organ or part.
    • The ventral side of the tongue is attached to the floor of the oral cavity
  24. palmar
    palmer - closer to anterior aspect of the hand
  25. plantar
    plantar - toward or closer to sole of foot, synonymous with inferior
  26. medius
    middle - position between superior/inferior, anterior/posterior, proximal/distal, or superficial/deep.
  27. intermediate
    intermediate - a "side to side" position between medial and lateral structures
  28. radial/ulnar
    • radial implies closer to the lateral aspect of the entire superior limb
    • ulnar implies the medial aspect.
    • Ex: the thumb is always on the radial side of the hand regardless of hand postion
  29. tibial/fibular
    • tibial implies toward or relatively closer to the medial side of the inferior limb
    • fibular implies the lateral aspect
  30. ipsilateralis
    • indicates a structure or position on the same side of the body
    • EX: the left superior limb and left inferior limb are on the ipsilateral side of the body
  31. contralateral
    • contralateral implies a position on the opposite side of the body
    • EX: the left and right superior limbs are on contralateral sides of the trunk
  32. dexter
  33. sinister
  34. guidelines for anatomic nomenclature
    • 1. should be designated by single term or phrase (limited exceptions)
    • 2. each term should be in Latin for official list, but anatomists are free to translate
    • 3.  each term should be as short and simple as possible
    • 4.  terms should be easy to remember, should have instructive and descriptive value
    • 5.  structures close topographically should have similar names
    • 6. differentiating adjectives should generally be opposites
    • 7. Terms derived from proper names should not be used
  35. Head
  36. cranium
  37. forehead
  38. posterior aspect of frons
  39. top of head, or crown
  40. temple
  41. ear
  42. face
  43. eye
  44. nose
  45. mouth
  46. cheek
  47. chin
  48. neck
  49. posterior aspect (nape) of neck
    nucha (noo ka)
  50. anterior aspect of neck
  51. trunk
  52. back
  53. thorax/chest
  54. abdomen
  55. divisions of trunk
    4: chest, abdomen, pelvis, back
  56. divisions of superior limb
    5: shoulder, arm, elbow, forearm, and hand
  57. divisions of inferior limb
    5: hip, thigh, knee, leg, and foot
  58. pelvis
  59. superior limb
    membrum superioris
  60. deltoid region/shoulder
    regio deltoideus
  61. arm
  62. elbow
  63. forearm
  64. hand
  65. wrist
  66. metacarpus
  67. digits of hand
    digiti manus
  68. thumb
    • first digit
    • digitus primus; pollex
  69. index finger
    • second digit
    • digitus secundus, index
  70. middle finger/third digit
    digitus tertius, digitus medius
  71. fourth digit/ring finger
    digitus quartus, digitus anularis
  72. fifth digit/little finger
    digitus quintus, digitus minimus
  73. inferior limb
    membrum inferioris
  74. hip
  75. thigh
  76. knee
  77. leg
  78. calf
  79. foot
  80. ankle
  81. metatarsus
  82. digits of foot/toes
    digiti pes
  83. first digit/big toe
    digitus primus, hallux
  84. second digit or toe
    digitus secundus
  85. 3rd digit or toe
    digitus tertius
  86. 4th digit or toe
    digitus quartus
  87. fifth digit/little toe
    digitus quintus, digitus minimus
  88. visceral body systems vs. somatic body systems
    • visceral body systems include digestive, respiratory, urinary, m/f reproductive.  3 common Charactieristics: one or more openings at body surface, a tubular disign, and specialized lining called mucous membrane
    • somatic body systems lack one or more of these characteristics
  89. when writing Nomina Anatomica on a quiz, how should it appear?
    • when handwriting book titles, underline
    • when typed, in italics