BIO chapter 1

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BIO chapter 1
2013-01-23 13:11:24
BIO chapter

BIO chapter 1
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  1. what are microbes
    an organism of microscopic size
  2. what is microbiology
    specialized area of biology that deals with organisms that are to small to see without a microscope. ie viruses, bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa
  3. what did Hooke do
    took the first step in developing cell theory. Coined the word cell
  4. Leeuwenhoek
    first to see microbes in drop of water (microscope)
  5. Jablot
    dismissed theory of spontanous life by showing sealed bottles didn't allow microbes to grow
  6. Pasteur
    pasteurization and swan neck bottle experiement
  7. Jenner
    first to innoculate person with cowpox virus to protect them fom smallpox
  8. Lister
    proposed the first aseptic technique. He used phenol to wash OR
  9. Koch's Postulates
    a procedure to establish the specific cause of a disease.
  10. steps for Kochs postulates
    • 1. the agent must be found
    • 2. inoculations of a pure culture must reproduce the same disease in animals
    • 3. see agent in experimental animal
    • 4. a pure culture must again be obtained.
  11. Vaccine
    attenuated (killed) microbe injected into a person to cure or prevent disease.  Word first used by Pasteur
  12. Fleming
    discovered Penicillium notatum created a zone of clearing around bacterial media plate. Leads to isolation of antibiotics. Started process toward PCN
  13. extremophile
    organisms living in extreme environments
  14. Archaea
    single celled primitive prokaryotic life that have unusual anatomy, physiology and genetics living in harsh habitats. Woese found
  15. Prokaryotes
    • very small
    • no nucleus
    • single celled
    • Bacteria and archaea
    • 1st appeared 3.5 billion yrs ago
  16. Eukaryotes
    • multi-cellular
    • has nucleus
    • fungi, algae, protozoa, helminths
  17. yeast
    single celled fungus (eukaryote)
  18. Biota
    normal flora and fauna of a specific regon or body
  19. microbiota
    normal organisms found on or in our bodies
  20. viruses
    non-cellular, parasitic, protein-coated genetic elements, dependent on their infected host.
  21. zoonosis
    disease that animals pass to humans (the flu)
  22. difference between opportunistic pathogen and transient pathogen
    • opportunistic causes problems when your sik and is apart of normal flora
    • transient comes from the outside world ie flu
  23. pathogen
    something that casues a disease
  24. naked virus
    virus without an envelope
  25. what do spikes mea on a virus?
    more virulent
  26. Bacteriophage
    bacteria that infects a virus
  27. when did eukaryotes first appear
    1.8 billion yrs ago
  28. saprophyte
    organism that lives on decay and facilitates the process of decay
  29. Bacteriology =
    study of prokaryotes
  30. Mycology =
    study of fungus
  31. Phycology =
    study of algae
  32. parasitology =
    study of protozoa
  33. protzoa
    ameoba, single celled organism
  34. virology
    study of viruses
  35. Immunology =
    study of the immune system
  36. Biogenesis
    idea that living things originate from other living things
  37. Spontaneous generation
    idea that life appeared from non-living things
  38. Francesco Redi
    disproved spontaneous generation (meat and maggot experiment)
  39. Schulze and Schwann
    found that treated incoming gas kept microbes from growing
  40. Pasteur
    • advent of pasteurization
    • heated wine to prevent it from souring
    • if wine can be infected so can humans
    • begining of germ theory
  41. germ theory
    people are infected by microbes which causes sickness or disease
  42. John Tyndell
    discontinous heat better than continuous to sterilize
  43. Cohn
    discovered and described endospores
  44. Epidemiology =
    study of the spread of disease
  45. Holmes
    • observed the spread of Puerperal fever (streptococcus) by healthcare providers
    • gave guidelines to reduce transmission
  46. Taxonomy
    the science of classifying living things
  47. who started taxonomy
    Carl Von Linne
  48. Every organism has a two name designation which is (binomial)
    Genus and species
  49. a species is
    a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
  50. subspecies
    more precise or differing measures of a species such as similarity of DNA, morphology or ecological niche
  51. taxonomy list =
    • KINGS - kingdom
    • PLAY - Phylum
    • CHESS - class/domain
    • ON - order
    • FINE - family
    • GREEN - Genus
    • SATIN- species