Medic 14 A&P Ch.2

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Medic 14 A&P Ch.2
2013-01-31 22:37:13
Medic 14

Chapter 2 A&P
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  1. Chemistry
    Is the science that investigates matter and its interactions.
  2. Matter
    Anything that takes up space and has mass.
  3. Mas
    Is a physical property that determines the weight of an object in earths gravitational field.
  4. Matter is comprised of?
  5. Elements
    Elements cannot be changed or broken down into simpler substances.
  6. The smallest stable unit of matter is?
    An Atom.
  7. Three subatomic particles of an Atoms
    Protons, Neutrons, and electrons.
  8. Protons
    Positive charge and are similar is size and mass to Neutrons.
  9. Neutrons 
    Neutral charge
  10. Atomic number
    the number of protons in an atom.
  11. Electron cloud
    Get more info
  12. Isotopes
    need better description
  13. Oxygen , O (65)
    A component of water and other compounds; Oxygen gas is essential for respiration.
  14. Carbon, C (18.6)
    Found in all organic molecules 
  15. Hydrogen, H (9.7)
    A component of water and most other compounds in the body.
  16. Nitrogen, N (3.2)
     Found in proteins,nucleic acids and other,organic compounds.
  17. Calcium, Ca(1.8) 
    Found in bones and teeth: important for membrane function, nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and clotting.
  18. Phosphorus, P (1)
    Found in bones and teeth,nucleic acids and high-energy compounds.
  19. Potassium, K (0.4)
    Important for proper membrane function, nerve impulse, and muscle contraction.
  20. Sodium, Na (0.2)
    Important for membrane function,nerve impulses, and muscle contraction.
  21. Chlorine, Cl (0.2)
    Important for membrane function and water absorption.
  22. Magnesium, Mg (0.6)
    Required for activation of several enzymes.
  23. Sulfur, S (0.04)
    Found in many proteins.
  24. Iron, Fe (0.007)
    Essential for oxygen transport and energy capture.
  25. Iodine, I (0.0002)
    A component of hormones of the thyroid gland.
  26. Atomic Weight
    average mass of elements atoms. Takes into account mass of subatomic particles and relative proportions of any isotopes.
  27. Mass Number
    Number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
  28. Atomic number
    Number of protons in an atom
  29. Molecules
    Chemical structures that contain more than one atom bonded together by shared electrons
  30. Compound
    Any chemical substance made up by atoms of two or more elements regardless of how the participating atoms achieve stability.
  31. Ions
    Atoms or molecules that have an electric charge.
  32. Cations
    Positive Ion
  33. Anions
    Negative Ion
  34. Ionic Bonds
    Chemical Bonds created by the electrical attraction between anions and cations.
  35. Ionic bonding
    Ionic bonds are formed by this process
  36. Covalent Bond
    Chemical bond that involves the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms.
  37. Single covalent bond
    Two Atoms sharing one pair of electrons.
  38. Double covalent bond
    Two atoms sharing two pairs of electrons
  39. Nonpolar covalent bonds
    A covalent bond where the atoms remain neutral because the electrons are shared equally. 
  40. Polar Covalent bond
    Is an unequal sharing between atoms of different elements.
  41. Hydrogen Bond
    A hydrogen bond is the attraction between a slight positive charge on the hydrogen atom of one polar covalent bond and a weak negative charge on an oxygen or nitrogen atom of another polar covalent bond.
  42. Surface tension
    Surface tension acts as a barrier that keeps small objects from entering the water
  43. Surfactant
    compounds that lower the surface tension of a liquid, the interfacial tension between two liquids, or that between a liquid and a solid.
  44. Chemical Reaction
    New chemical bonds form between atoms or existing bonds between atoms are broken.
  45. Reactants
    are the substances that are present before the chemical change takes place. They are the things that are present at the starting point. By convention, the chemical symbols for the reactants are written on the left hand side of the chemical reaction equation.
  46. Products
    are the substances that are formed during the chemical change. They are the things that are present at the end. By convention, the chemical symbols for the products are written on the right hand side of the chemical reaction equation.
  47. Work
    Is movement or a change in the physical structure of matter.
  48. Energy
    • Is the capacity to perform work.
    • Kinetic and Potential Energy.
  49. Kinetic Energy
    Energy of motion
  50. Potential energy
    Stored energy
  51. Types of Chemical Reactions
    Decomposition reactions, synthesis reactions, and exchange reactions.
  52. Decomposition Reactions 
    Breaks a molecule into smaller fragments

  53. Hydrolysis
    Usually hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule of water is added to a substance. Sometimes this addition causes both substance and water molecule to split into two parts.In such reactions, one fragment of the target molecule (or parent molecule) gains a hydrogen ion.

    • A--B--C--D--E+H2O----->
    • A--B--C--H+ HO--D--E
  54. Catabolism
    • Decomposition reactions of complex molecules within cells
    • when a covalent bond is broken, it releases kinetic energy. Cells harness that energy to power essential functions
  55. Synthesis Reactions
    • Synthesis reaction assembles larger molecules from smaller molecules 
    • A+B-->AB
  56. Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation)
    is the formation of a complex molecule by the removal of water

    • A--B--C--H+HO--D--E-->
    •                              A--B--C--D--E+H20
  57. Anabolism
    Synthesis of new compounds in the body
  58. Exchange Reaction
    Parts of the reacting molecules are shuffled around as follows

  59. Equilibrium
    • A+B<-->AB
    • Two reactions happening simultaneously
    • one synthesis/decomposition
  60. Activation energy
    The amount of energy required to start a reaction
  61. Catalysts
     Are compounds that accelerate chemical reactions without themselves being permanently changed. 
  62. Enzyme
  63. Exergonic
    Reactions that release energy.
  64. Endergonic
     total amount of energy is a loss (it takes more energy to start the reaction than what you get out of it) so the total energy is a negative net result.
  65. Nutrients
    Essential elements and molecules that are obtained from diet
  66. Metabolites 
    Include all molecules synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions in our body.
  67. Nutrients and metabolites can be...
    Inorganic compounds or Organic compounds.
  68. Inorganic Compounds
    Generally speaking are small molecules that do not contain carbon and  hydrogen atoms
  69. Organic Compounds
    Primarily composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms, and they can be much larger and more complex then inorganic compounds
  70. Water's important properties
    • is an excellent solvent
    • has a very high heat capacity
    • is an essential reactant in chemical reactions of living systems
  71. Acid
    is any substance that dissociates in solution to release hydrogen ions

    HCL----->H+ + CL-
  72. Base
    is any substance that removes hydrogen ions from a solution.

    NaOH-----> NA+ + OH-
  73. Buffers
    Are compunds that stabilize pH by either removing or replacing hydrogen ions.
  74. Salt
    is an ionic compound that consists of any cation except a hydrogen ion and any anion except an hydroxide ion.
  75. Electrolytes 
    Inorganic compounds whose ions can conduct an electrical current in solution.
  76. Major classes of large organic molecules
    • Carbohydrates,
    • lipids, proteins,
    • and nucleic acids.
  77. Carbohydrate
    Is an organic molecule that contains carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen near 1:2:1.
  78. Major types of Carbohydrates
    • Monosaccharides,
    • Disaccharides,
    • Polysaccharides
  79. Monosaccharide (simple sugar)
    is a carbohydrate that conains from three to seven carbon atoms. Glucose is included in this group.
  80. Disaccharide
    Two monosaccharides joined together, (sucrose)
  81. Glycogen (animal starch)
    polysaccharide that is composed of interconnected glucose molecules
  82. Polysaccharides
    Result when repeated dehydration synthesis reactions add additional monosaccharides or disaccharides.
  83. Monosaccharides

    Example/Primary function/Remarks

    Energy source

    Manufactured in the body and obtained from food; found in all body fluids
  84. Disaccharides

    Example/Primary function/Remarks

    Energy source

    Sucrose is table sugar, lactose is present inmilk; all must be broken down to monosaccharides before absorption.
  85. Polysaccharides

    Example/Primary function/Remarks

    Storage of glucose molecules

    Glycogen is in animal cells; other starches and cellulose are in plant cells.
  86. Lipids 
    • Contain carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen
    • 1:2:1

    Contain small quanities of other elements including phosphorus, nitrogen, or sulfur.
  87. Major types of lipids
    • Fatty acids
    • fats
    • steroids
    • phospholipids
  88. Fatty acids
    are long chains of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms that end in a carboxylic acid group
  89. Saturated fatty acid 
    Four single covalent bonds of each carbon atom permit each neighboring carbon to link to cah other and to two hydrogen atoms
  90. Unsaturated Fatty acids
    The fatty acid is unsaturated if any of the carbon to carbon bonds are double covalent bonds, then fewer hydrogen atoms are present.
  91. Fats are made by....
    Attaching fatty acids to glycerol
  92. Triglyceride
    Glycerol molecule is attached to three fatty acids
  93. Saturated fats
    Triglycerides that contain saturated fatty acids
  94. Unsaturated fats
    Triglycerides that contain unsaturated fatty acids
  95. Steroids 
    Are large lipid molecules composed of four connected rings of carbon atoms.
  96. Cholesterol
    Steroid needed to maintain cell membranes and produce hormones.
  97. Phospholipids
    Consist of a glycerol and two fatty acids )diglyceride) linked to a nonlipid group by a phosphate group.
  98. Fatty Acid

    Example/Primary function/Remarks
    Lauric acid

    Energy sources

    Absorbed from food or synthesized in cells;transported in the blood for use in many cells
  99. Fats

    Example/Primary function/Remarks
    Momoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides 

    Energy source, energy storage, insulation, and physical protection.

    Stored in fat deposits; must be broken down into fatty acids and glycerol before they can be used as an energy source.
  100. Steroids

    Example/Primary function/Remarks
    Structural component of cell membranes, hormones, digestive secretions in bile.

    All have the same carbon-ring framework.
  101. Phospholipids

    Example/Primary function/Remarks

    Structural components of cell membranes

    Composted of fatty acids and nonlipid molecules
  102. Proteins 
    are the most abundant organic components of the human body and in many ways the most important.

    All proteins contain carbon,hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; smaller quantities of sulfur may also be present.
  103. Components of Protein function
    • Support
    • Movement
    • Transport
    • Buffering
    • Metabolic regulation
    • Coordination,communication, and control
    • Defense
  104. Support-Protein function
    Structural proteins create three dimensional framework for the body and provide strength, organization and support for cells,tissues and organs.
  105. Movement-Protein function
    Contractile proteins are responsible for muscular contraction;related proteins are responsible for the movement of individual cells.
  106. Transport-Protein function
    Insoluble lipids  respiratory gases, minerals such as iron, and several hormones are carried in the blood attached to transport proteins.Other specialized proteins transport materials between different parts of a cell.
  107. Buffering-Protein function
    Proteins provides a considerable buffering action, which helps prevent potentially dangerous changes in pH in cells and tissues
  108. Metabolic regulation-Protein function
    Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions in living cells. the sensitivity of enzymes to environmental factors is extremely important in controlling the pace and direction of metabolic operations.
  109. Coordination, communication, and control-Protein function
    Protein hormones can influence the metabolic activities of every cell in the body or affect the function of specific organs or organ systems.
  110. Defense-Protein function
    The tough, waterproof proteins of skin,hair and nails protect the body from the enviroemental hazards.Antibodies protect us from disease and clotting proteins restrict bleeding.
  111. Amino acids
    Building blocks of proteins
  112. Peptide bond
     is a covalent chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with theamino group of the other molecule, causing the release of a molecule of water (H2O), hence the process is a dehydration synthesis reaction (also known as a condensation reaction), and usually occurs between amino acids
  113. Peptides 
    are Molecules made up of amino acids held together by peptide bonds.
  114. Dipedtide
    Molecules consist of two amino acids
  115. Polypeptides
    That contain more then 100 amino acids called proteins.
  116. Denaturation
    is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the tertiary structure and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), or heat.
  117. Enzymes
    These molecules catalyze the reactions that sustain life.
  118. Enzymatic reactants
  119. Inorder for a enzyme to function as a catalyst...
    the substrate must bind to a special region of the enzyme called the active site.
  120. Specificity
    Each enzyme can only catalyze one type of reaction 
  121. Pathway
    Complex reactions that support life proceed in a series of interlocking, steps controlled by a different enzyme
  122. Nucleic Acids
    Are large organic molecules composted of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Nucleic acids process information at the molecular level inside cells.
  123. Nucleotides
    are components of nucleic acids and contain a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
  124. 5 Nitrogenous bases
    • Adenine (A)
    • Guanine (g)
    • Cytosine (C)
    • Thymine (T)
    • Uricil (U)
  125. RNA
    • Sugar -Ribose
    • Nitrogen bases-
    • Adenine
    • Guanine
    • Cytosine
    • Uracil
    • Number of nucleotides in a typical molecule- Varies from fewer than 100 necleotides to about 50,000
    • Shape of molecule- Single strand
    • Function- preforms protein synthesis as directed by DNA
  126. DNA
    • Sugar- Deoxyribose
    • Nitrogen Bases-
    • Adenine
    • Guaninse
    • Cytosine
    • Thymine
    • Number of nucleotides in a typical molecule-
    • Always more than 45 million nucleotides
    • Shape- Paired stands colied into a double helix
    • Function-Stores genetic information that controls protein synthesis.
  127. Complementary base pairs
    • Cytosine-Guanine
    • Adenine- Thymine
  128. High Energy Compounds
    Are stored in cells
  129. Adenosine triphosphate 
    • ATP
    • Composed of the  nucleotide  adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and two phosphate groups.