Card Set Information
Animal Diseases One
What are immunoglobulins?
Where are antibodies secreted?
by plasma cells
Antibodies are made up of about _____ amino acids.
What shape is the antibody structure?
Amino acids are arranged into _____ and _____ chains.
What do heavy chains determine?
the properties and functions of each class of immunoglobulins.
Each antibody molecule has a _____ and a _____ part.
What does the constant part bind to?
specific receptors on segs and macrophages
What does the variable part bind to?
custom tailored to bind to its specific antigen
What are the different classes of immunoglobulins?
Which class of Ig are the largest in size?
Which Ig is too big to cross cell membranes of endothelial cells?
Which Ig stays in the plasma?
Which Ig neutralizes microorganisms?
Which Ig is the first to appear after immunization?
Which Ig is the major Ig produced in a primary immune response?
Which Ig is the smallest in size?
Which Ig is present in the greatest quantity?
Which Ig is the mediator of many systemic infections?
Which Ig is produced in small amounts upon initial immunization?
Which Ig production increases on re-exposure to the antigen?
What can IgG bind to?
Which Ig can get into the placenta and fetus?
Which Ig acts as an opsonin and coats the bacteria to make it easier to phagocytize?
Which Ig is the major Ig found in external secretions of the body (tears, saliva, mucus, colosturm)?
Which Ig helps protect the intestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts?
Which Ig is not digested in the GI tract?
Which Ig is present in trace amounts in the serum?
Which Ig is locally attached to mast cells?
Which Ig mediates allergic reactions in tissues?
Which Ig may lead to anaphylactic shock if it is released systemically?
Which Ig fixes complement?
Which Ig does not fix complement?
Which Ig is found on B cell surfaces and functions as a receptor for antigens?
Where does antibody production begin?
begins with contact between an antigen and cells of the immune system, which identify the antigen as foreign
Most antigens need to be presented to a _____.
What does the response of the B cell depend on?
depends on interaction with assorted T cells
What is antibody production mediated by?
receptors on the surfaces of the antigen, T cells, and B cells
What happens once B cells are activated?
they differentiate into plasma cells
What do plasma cells produce?
specific antibodies that can react with that antigen
What does the first response to antigen exposure result in?
When is IgM produced after the first exposure to the antigen?
48 - 72 hours
What happens after IgM production?
initial IgG production
What happens on the second exposure to the same antigen?
a much stronger IgG response occurs and appears in 24 - 48 hours
What is a single B cell stimulated by?
After the B cell is stimulated by the antigen, what happens?
the B cell proliferates and makes clones of itself which are specific to that antigen
What happens to the B cell clones?
some mature to plasma cells which produce antibodies
some revert to memory cells - small lymphocytes
What is the Ag-Ab complex?
antigen and antibody are bound to each other by chemical and physical bonds
Can antigens bind to more than one antibody?
yes, most antigens have multiple antigenic sites on their surface
What are the four possibilities that can happen if Ab is bound to soluble Ag circulating in blood?
small complexes may remain soluble - circulate in the blood
small complexes may attach to RBC's or endothelial cells
small complexes may filter through capillary walls into tissues or urine
large complexes are phagocytized in the liver and spleen by fixed macrophages
What happens if Ab is bound to insoluble Ag?
the Ab becomes bound to the cell membrane
How do antibodies coat the RBCs?
two possibilities: agglutination, lysis