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what is the 6 parts of the scientific method
- observation/further experimentation
if the results of an experiment support the hypothesis then what according to the scientific method should come next?
further predictions can be made to support the hypothesis
what happens is the hypothesis is not supported in the scientif method
alternative hypothesi are made and tested
what are the most common spoilage organisms.
spoilage organisms are classified according to what?
tempature they prefer
what are the different classes of spoilage organisms
- cold loving
- cold tolerant
- ambient loving
- heat loving
- high heat loving
at what point has food spoilage occured?
when foods nutritional value,texture, or flavor has changed and the food is no longer edible.
organisms are classified into 3 domains what are they?
eukarya consists of what 4 organisms
in eukaryatic cells where is the DNA housed?
in the nucleus
which domain or domains are prokaryotes?
The study of living things too small to be seen without magnification
Microorganisms or microbes-
What do microorganisms do?
Microorganisms have become an integral part of industry, technology, farming
3 major groups of microorganisms
- prokaryotes - before the nucleus
- eukaryortes - true nucleus
- non-cellular - Viruses- parasitic, protein-coated genetic elements that can infect all living things,including other microorganisms
bacteria are prokaryote or eukaryote?
bacteria cell walls consist of
how do bacteria reproduce?
what do bacteria use for energy?
organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, or photosynthesis
are algae Eukaryote or prokaryote
algae cell walls consist of?
what does algae use for energy
what does algae produce
molecular oxygen and organic compounds
protozoa are prokaryote or eukaryote?
what do peotozoa absorb?
protozoa may be motile by what means?
Are Multicellular Animal Parasites eukaryote or peokaryote?
what is another name for parasitic flatworms and round worms?
are fungi prokaryote or eukaryote
what are the cell walls of fungi made of
what does fungi use as energy
which fungi are multicellular
molds and mushrooms
which fungi are unicellular
what are viruses and are they considered "living"
acellular, non- living
what is the core of a virus made of
DNA or RNA
what is the core of a virus surrounded by?
the protien coat that surrounds the core of a virus may be enclosed in what?
what is required for a virus to replicate?
a living host cell
Branches of Microbiology
- •Agricultural microbiology
- •Food,dairy, and aquatic microbiology
- •Genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology
- •Public health microbiology and epidemiology
about how long ago did microbes first appear?
3.5 billion years ago
which organism conducted photosynthesis first: bacteria or plants
humans use microorganisms for many things what are 2 uses
- food preservatives - yogurt, salami, cheeses
- producing important compounds - antibiotics, msg, ethonol
When humans manipulate microorganisms to make products in an industrial setting, has been around for centuries. Genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology are new uses of microorganisms
introducing microbes in to the environment to restore stability or clean up toxic pollutants
whan does disease result?
When a pathogen overcomes the host’s resistance
Emerging infectious diseases (EID):
New diseases and diseases increasing in incidence.
Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells - 4 differences
- Prokaryotic cells are about 10 times smaller than eukaryotic cells
- Prokaryotic cells lack many cell structures such as organelles
- All prokaryotes are microorganisms, but only some eukaryotes are
Robert Hooke (1635-1703) was the first to do what?
- describe microbes
- see microorganisms
- report that living things are composed of cells
who created the single-lens microscope?
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
living things originate from other living things
Spontaneous generation (abiogenesis):
life rapidly appears from non-living things.
Disproved spontaneous generation of maggots
- Discovered that alcoholic fermentation was a biologically mediated process
- Disproved theory of spontaneous generation
- Developed vaccines for anthrax, fowl cholera, and rabies
The Golden Age of Microbiology
The Germ Theory of Disease
- 1835: Agostino Bassi showed that a silkworm disease was caused by a fungus.
- 1865: Pasteur believed that another silkworm disease was caused by a protozoan.
- 1840s: Ignaz Semmelwise advocated hand washing to prevent transmission of puerperal fever from one OB patient to another.
Establishment of the Scientific Method
- Early scientists tended to explain natural phenomena by a mixture of belief, superstition, and argument
- During the 1600s, true scientific thinking developed
- From that, the development of the scientific method
- Formulate a hypothesis
- Most use the deductive approach to apply the scientific method
- Experimentation, analysis, and testing leads to conclusions
- Either support or refute the hypothesis
- Hypotheses can eventually become theories
- Theories can eventually become laws or principles
classifying living things
discovering and recording the traits of organisms so they can be named and classified
how to memorize taxonomy
A standardized nomenclature allows scientists from all over the world to exchange information
Called binomial nomenclature
how does it work?
- The generic (genus) name followed by the species name
- Generic part is capitalized, species is lowercase
- Both are italicized or underlined if italics aren’t
the degree of relatedness between groups of living things