microbiology 1

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microbiology 1
2013-01-19 10:45:18
lecture test

micro lecture test 1
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  1. what is the 6 parts of the scientific method
    • observation 
    • hypothesis
    • prediction
    • observation/further experimentation
    • results 
    • conclusion
  2. if the results of an experiment support the hypothesis then what according to the scientific method should come next?
    further predictions can be made to support the hypothesis
  3. what happens is the hypothesis is not supported in the scientif method
    alternative hypothesi are made and tested
  4. what are the most common spoilage organisms.
    • bacteria
    • yests
    • molds
  5. spoilage organisms are classified according to what?
    tempature they prefer
  6. what are the different classes of spoilage organisms
    • cold loving
    • cold tolerant 
    • ambient loving
    • heat loving
    • high heat loving
  7. at what point has food spoilage occured?
    when foods nutritional value,texture, or flavor has changed and the food is no longer edible.
  8. organisms are classified into 3 domains what are they?
    • archaea
    • eukarya
    • bacteria
  9. eukarya consists of what 4 organisms
    • protists
    • plants
    • fungi
    • animals
  10. in eukaryatic cells where is the DNA housed?
    in the nucleus
  11. which domain or domains are prokaryotes?
    • archaea
    • bacteria
  12. Microbiology: 
    The study of living things too small to be seen without magnification
  13. Microorganisms or microbes-
    microscopic organisms
  14. What do microorganisms do?
    Microorganisms have become an integral part of industry, technology, farming
  15. 3 major groups of microorganisms
    • prokaryotes - before the nucleus
    • eukaryortes - true nucleus
    • non-cellular - Viruses- parasitic, protein-coated genetic elements that can infect all living things,including other microorganisms 
  16. bacteria are prokaryote or eukaryote?
  17. bacteria cell walls consist of
  18. how do bacteria reproduce?
    binary fission
  19. what do bacteria use for energy?
    organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, or photosynthesis
  20. are algae Eukaryote or prokaryote
  21. algae cell walls consist of?
  22. what does algae use for energy
  23. what does algae produce
    molecular oxygen and organic compounds
  24. protozoa are prokaryote or eukaryote?
  25. what do peotozoa absorb?
    organic chemicals
  26. protozoa may be motile by what means?
    pseudopods,cilia,or flagella
  27. Are Multicellular Animal Parasites eukaryote or peokaryote?
  28. what is another name for parasitic flatworms and round worms?
  29. are fungi prokaryote or eukaryote 
  30. what are the cell walls of fungi made of 
  31. what does fungi use as energy
    organic chemicals
  32. which fungi are multicellular
    molds and mushrooms
  33. which fungi are unicellular
  34. what are viruses and are they considered "living"
    acellular, non- living
  35. what is the core of a virus made of
    DNA or RNA
  36. what is the core of a virus surrounded by?
    protien coat
  37. the protien coat that surrounds the core of a virus may be enclosed in what?
    lipid envelope
  38. what is required for a virus to replicate?
    a living host cell
  39. Branches of Microbiology
    • •Agricultural microbiology
    • •Biotechnology
    • •Food,dairy, and aquatic microbiology
    • •Genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology
    • •Public health microbiology and epidemiology
    • •Immunology
  40. about how long ago did microbes first appear?
    3.5 billion years ago 
  41. which organism conducted photosynthesis first: bacteria or plants
  42. humans use microorganisms for many things what are 2 uses
    • food preservatives - yogurt, salami, cheeses
    • producing important compounds - antibiotics, msg, ethonol
  43. Biotechnology-
    When humans manipulate microorganisms to make products in an industrial setting, has been around for centuries. Genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology are new uses of microorganisms
  44. Bioremediation- 
    introducing microbes in to the environment to restore stability or clean up toxic pollutants
  45. Pathogens- 
    disease-causing organisms
  46. whan does disease result?
    When a pathogen overcomes the host’s resistance
  47. Emerging infectious diseases (EID):
    New diseases and diseases increasing in incidence.
  48. Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells - 4 differences
    • Prokaryotic cells are about 10 times smaller than eukaryotic cells
    • Prokaryotic cells lack many cell structures such as organelles
    • All prokaryotes are microorganisms, but only some eukaryotes are
  49. Robert Hooke (1635-1703) was the first to do what?
    • describe microbes
    • see microorganisms
    • report that living things are composed of cells
  50. who created the single-lens microscope?
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
  51. Biogenesis:
    living things originate from other living things
  52. Spontaneous generation (abiogenesis):
    life rapidly appears from non-living things.
  53. Francesco Redi
    Disproved spontaneous generation of maggots
  54. Louis Pasteur
    • Discovered that alcoholic fermentation was a biologically mediated process 
    • Disproved theory of spontaneous generation 
    • Developed vaccines for anthrax, fowl cholera, and rabies
  55. The Golden Age of Microbiology
  56. The Germ Theory of Disease
    • 1835: Agostino Bassi showed that a silkworm disease was caused by a fungus.
    • 1865: Pasteur believed that another silkworm disease was caused by a protozoan.
    • 1840s: Ignaz Semmelwise advocated hand washing to prevent transmission of puerperal fever from one OB patient to another.
  57. Establishment of the Scientific Method
    • Early scientists tended to explain natural phenomena by a mixture of belief, superstition, and argument
    • During the 1600s, true scientific thinking developed
    • From that, the development of the scientific method
    • Formulate a hypothesis
    • Most use the deductive approach to apply the scientific method
    • Experimentation, analysis, and testing leads to conclusions
    • Either support or refute the hypothesis
    • Hypotheses can eventually become theories
    • Theories can eventually become laws or principles
  58. Taxonomy:
    classifying living things
  59. Microbial nomenclature-
    naming microorganisms
  60. Identification-
    discovering and recording the traits of organisms so they can be named and classified
  61. how to memorize taxonomy
    •Kingdom                                   Kings

    •Phylum/                                    Play

    •Class/Domain                            Chess

    •Order                                       On

    •Family                                      Fine

    •Genus                                      Green

    •Species                                    Satin
  62. A standardized nomenclature allows scientists from all over the world to exchange information
    Called binomial nomenclature
    how does it work?
    • The generic (genus) name followed by the species name
    • Generic part is capitalized, species is lowercase
    • Both are italicized or underlined if italics aren’t
    • available
  63. Phylogeny- 
    the degree of relatedness between groups of living things