Chapter one Statistics

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Author:
Nickbodnar
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193289
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Chapter one Statistics
Updated:
2013-01-16 20:43:15
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statistics chapter one math university michigan flint
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Description:
General Statistics
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  1. Quantitative
    data is represented in numbers
  2. Qualitative 
    data is represented in words
  3. The experiment    
    is the way to test for causes and to get results
  4. Survey
    a way to collect quantitative data
  5. Content analysis
    analyzing text such as books and using that as your data (pictures, clothing)
  6. Secondary analysis
    using data that you did not collect
  7. Variable 
    empirical representations of concepts; something that changes or varies; has categories or values.
  8. Concept
    an idea or mental abstractions. These concepts become variables in quantitative methods.
  9. Steps for concepts to become variables
    • 1. conceptualization-you need a variable
    • 2. operalization-you need measurement 
  10. Independent Variable
    caused change to another variable, manipulated by the experimenter (IV)
  11. Dependent Variable
    what we want to measure, come after the IV (DV)
  12. Intervening Variable
    links IV and DV (comes between)
  13. Control Variable 
    to test whether the inital relationship will stay the same between (IV) +(DV) 
  14. Categorical Variable
    Separated in categories 
  15. Numerical Variables
    The quantity of a concept being measured  
  16. Continuous 
    a variable that can only be measured with numbers that can be subdivided into smaller increments. (income, age)
  17. Discrete
    Variables measured with a limited number of fixed categories (gender, religion, race)
  18. Mutually exclusive attributes 
    should only fit into one category 
  19. Exhaustive Attributes
    should provide a category for all possible responses (every person should be able to answer the question)
  20. Causal Alternate
    States there is a relationship between IV+DV 

    Symbol (H)
  21. Null Hypothesis 
    Is a statement of no relationship between IV+DV

    Symbol (HO)

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