Chapter one Statistics
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data is represented in numbers
data is represented in words
is the way to test for causes and to get results
a way to collect quantitative data
analyzing text such as books and using that as your data (pictures, clothing)
using data that you did not collect
empirical representations of concepts; something that changes or varies; has categories or values.
an idea or mental abstractions. These concepts become variables in quantitative methods.
Steps for concepts to become variables
- 1. conceptualization-you need a variable
- 2. operalization-you need measurement
caused change to another variable, manipulated by the experimenter (IV)
what we want to measure, come after the IV (DV)
links IV and DV (comes between)
to test whether the inital relationship will stay the same between (IV) +(DV)
Separated in categories
The quantity of a concept being measured
a variable that can only be measured with numbers that can be subdivided into smaller increments. (income, age)
Variables measured with a limited number of fixed categories (gender, religion, race)
Mutually exclusive attributes
should only fit into one category
should provide a category for all possible responses (every person should be able to answer the question)
States there is a relationship between IV+DV
Is a statement of no relationship between IV+DV
What would you like to do?
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