Quarter 2 Spine Neurology Section 1

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bradley.knox
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193294
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Quarter 2 Spine Neurology Section 1
Updated:
2013-01-17 19:34:25
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Spinal neruo
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spinal neuro
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  1. What cellular adaptation may result in hypertension or stenosis?
    Pathologic Hypertrophy
  2. What is the bodies primary response to any injury?
    inflammation
  3. An increase in the size of cells resulting in an increase in the size of the organ
    Hypertrophy
  4. What type of cellular adaptation are muscle gain and uterine expansion examples of? 
    Physiologic hypertrophy
  5. An adaptive response in which the cell get smaller to survive
    Atrophy
  6. An increase in cell quantity
    hyperplasia
  7. the decrease in uterus size after parturition is an example of what type of cellular adaptation
    Physiologic Atrophy
  8. disuse, denervation, gradual ischemia, deficient nutrition, endocrine hormonal, old age, pressure are all causes of what cellular adaptation
    Pathologic Atrophy
  9. What is the lack of blood flow to tissue (artery compromise)?
    Ischemia
  10. Lack of Oxygen
    Hypoxia
  11. No Oxygen
    Anoxia
  12. causes progressive atrophy of the brain
    atherosclerosis
  13. Atrophy to the point of cell injury and death
    Prognosis
  14. What type of atrophy is caused by cell debris resisting resisting digestion
    Brown Atrophy
  15. A reversible change in which one adult cell type is replaced by another
    Metaplasia
  16. What is the most common form of metaplasia
    columnar to squamous
  17. What type of necrosis occurs from abcesses and cranial infarction? 
    Liquefactive
  18. what type of necrosis is caused by secondary tuberculosis, tertiary syphilis, and leprosy? 
    Caseous
  19. What are the three nuclear morphologic changes in necrosis>
    • Karyolysis (loss of color)
    • Pyknosis (nuclear shrinkage)
    • Karyorrehexis (fragmentation)
  20. Apoptosis with the cell
    entrensic
  21. Apoptosis from outside signal
    Extrensic
  22. What acts as a time bomb for cells?
    telomeres
  23. What is the primary enzyme involved in apoptosis
    • Cysteine Aspartate Specific Proteases
    • CASPASES (killer enzyme)
  24. What activates caspases?
    T- Lymphocytes (T - Cells)
  25. What nuclear protein is affected by damaged damage?
    p53
  26. Where are T-Cells produced?
    thymus gland in early life then bone marrow
  27. What is synchronized with apoptosis so that tissues don't dwindle or over grow?
    Mitosis
  28. what is an example of a profound derangement of the balance between mitosis and apoptosis?
    Cancer
  29. What it is called when a cell eats its own contents?
    Autophagy
  30. What are the three categories of cell accumulations?
    • 1. normal cellular constituent
    • 2. Abnormal substance
    • 3. pigment
  31. what accumulation category includes natural products that are stored due to metabolism issues?
    normal cellular constituents
  32. What accumulations category would calcium and cholesterol fall into?
    abnormal substance
  33. what accumulation category would metabolism bi-product and destroyed cell bi-product (eg. hemaglobin apoptosis) fall into?
    pigment
  34. what dysfunction is seen as accumulation of triglycerides within the parenchymal cells? most commonly the liver
    steatosis (fatty accumulation)
  35. what is most commonly caused by loss of atp resulting in failure of sodium potassium pump?
    Cellular Swelling
  36. what is the accumulation of iron within the parenchymal cells?
    hemosiderin
  37. What is a common bruise an example of?
    localized hemosiderosis
  38. What are sickle cell anemia and malria examples of?
    Hemolytic anemias
  39. what is an example an example of systemic hemosiderosis?
    • blood transfusions
    • hemolytic anemias
  40. what disorder is associated with accumulation of cholesterol in the blood vessel walls.
    atherosclerosis
  41. what dysfunction is associated with ischemia or decreased O2 carrying capacity of blood?
    hypoxia
  42. are cellular swelling and steatosis reversible or irriversable?
    Reversible
  43. What are two main causes of irreversible injury?
    • Hypoxic Ischemic Injury
    • Free Radical Induced Injury
  44. What type of calcification occurs in dead tissue?
    Dystrophic Calcification (eg. atherosclerosis)
  45. What form of calcification are kidney stones, hardening of arteries, and mobilizing calcium from bone to blood examples of?
    Metastatic calcification

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