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WBC- normal adult values
Iron level- normal adult values
(aka granulocytes) 55-70% of total WBC count. Increased in acute pus forming infection, decreased in overwhelming bacterial infection (older adult)
- Growth of a stem cell into a mature neutrophil is 12-14 days.
- Life span is 12-18 hours.
- Can only take part in one episode of phagocytosis.
20-40%. Increased in chronic bacterial and viral infection, decreased in sepsis
(aka macrophages) 5-10% of total WBC count. Increased in protozoan, rickettsial, and tuberculosis infections. Fixed or non fixed. Limited activity until mature.
- 1-4% of total WBC count. Increased in parasitic infection.
- Come from myeloid line. # of eosinohils increased during allergic reactions.
0.5-1.5% of total WBC count. Normal during infection. Come from myeloid line. Functions by releasing chemicals including heparin, histamine, serotonin, etc.
Leukocytes involved in inflammation
Leukocytes involved in antibody-mediated immunity
- Plasma Cell
- Memory Cell
Leukocytes involved in cell-mediated immunity
- Helped/inducer T Cells
- Cytotoxic/cytolytic T Cell
- Natural Killer Cell
come from the committed myeloid stem cells in the bone marrow. The liver, sleep, and intestinal tract contain a large number of these cells.
Have long life spans and partake in many phagocytic events.
Seven steps involved in Phagocytosis
- Exposure and Invasion
- Cellular ingestion
- Phagosome formation
Age related immune changes- Inflammation
- Neutrophil function defective
- absence of leukocytosis
- compromised thermoregulation
Age related immune changes- antibody mediated immunity
- Diminished capability to produce new antibodies
- decline in natural antibodies
- decreased response to antigens
- decreased antibody response time
Age related immune changes- cell mediated immunity
- decreased thymus gland function
- decreased number of T lymphocytes
Stage 1 of Inflammation response
- Vascular part
- Involves changes in blood vessels
- Cause redness and warmth of tissues. The increased bloodflow delivers nutrients to injured tissues.
- Macrophage is major cell in stage 1.
Stage 2 of inflammation response
- Cellular exudate part of response.
- Neutrophil is most active cell in this stage.
- Arachidonic acid cascade starts.
Stage 3 of inflammation response
tissue repair and replacement.
Seven steps needed to produce a specific antibody directed against a specific antigen
- antigen recognition
- lymphocyte sensitization
- antibody production and release
- antigen-antibody binding
- antibody binding reactions
- sustained immunity or memory
ability to recognize own cell's vs. foreign cells
human leukocyte antigen
- UPC code for individuals
- present on nearly all body cells
- determine tissue type
'systems' involved in the immune system
GI system, nervous system, endocrine system
5 cardinal signs of inflammation
warmth, redness, swelling, pain, loss of function.
CMI regulates the immune system by production and activity of cytokines. These are small protein hormones produced by many WBCs.