A&P midterm review

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saturn1212
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A&P midterm review
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2013-01-17 01:36:25
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A&P midterm review
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  1. Pain that seems superficial but is actually caused by an underlying organ is...
    referred pain
  2. Olfactory tract carries...
    smell
  3. How many openings in middle ear?
    4
  4. Not a primary taste sensation?
    spicy
  5. Movement of hair in organ of Corti against                   membrane can stimulate nerve impulse condition.
    tectorial
  6. What structure is not part of the external ear?
    Eustachian tube
  7. Impulses travel from inner ear to brain stem by way of...
    cochlear nerve
  8. Semicircular canals are in         planes of the body
    three
  9. What sensory impulses trigger imprecise or "crude" sensation awareness?
    Thalmus
  10. 2 point discrimination test can be used to measure...
    sensitivity of skin in various parts of body
  11. What receptors stimulate thirst center?
    Osmoreceptors
  12. Another name for bulbous corpuscle?
    Ruffini corpuscle
  13. Internal layer of heart tissue...
    endocardium
  14. Cavity that has thickest wall...
    left ventricle
  15. Blood vessel tissue layers from exterior to interior...
    tunica adventitia, tunica media, tunica intima
  16. Smooth muscle in blood vessels is located in the...
    tunica media
  17. What acts as blood reservoirs?
    veins
  18. blood from stomach and intestines goes to liver thru...
    hepatic portal vein
  19. Pulm and aortic valves are called...
    semilunar valves
  20. "normal" boundaries are not influenced by...
    gender
  21. What are not true of ventricles?
    They are all true of ventricles
  22. If damaged, which valve could allow blood to leak back into right atrium?
    Tricuspid
  23. Cuspid valves open into...
    ventricles
  24. An impulse to contract would be carried in what sequence?
    SA node, Purkinje fibers, AV node, and AV bundles
  25. After birth the ductus venosus closes and ...
    allows blood ti flow into liver
  26. Baby has bluish tinge, sounds like leakage between right and left atria. What's wrong and how do you fix this?
    Foramen Ovale not closed, may take up to 9 months to heal
  27. What will not cause ectopic beat?
    SA node
  28. QRS represents...
    repolarization of atria and depolarization of ventricles
  29. What will not increase heart rate?
    stimulation of cold receptors in skin
  30. When semilunar valves are open, what occurs?
    • AV valves are closed, Ventricles in systole, blood enters aorta, blood enters pulm artery
    • (2,3,5,6)
  31. First sound (lub) is caused by...
    ventricles contracting and AV valves closing
  32. Artery in arm for measuring BP?
    Brachial
  33. What part of QRS represent atria repolarization?
    none of the above
  34. True or False? Stimulation of vagus nerve slows heart rate.
    True
  35. What is not part of vasomotor control mechanism?
    Sympathetic stimulation of heart to increase cardiac output
  36. Atrial systole causes blood to...
    move thru cuspid valves
  37. What is not a way venous blood returns to heart?
    contraction of semilunar valves in vein
  38. Period between semilunar valve closure and opening of AV valves is called...
    isovolumetric ventricular relaxation
  39. Period of time blood is moved out of atria into ventricles is called...
    atrial systole
  40. circulatory shock from infectious agents is called...
    septic shock
  41. circulatory shock from drop in amt of blood is called...
    hypovolemic shock
  42. What would cause fluid to leave blood vessel at arterial end?
    high hydrostatic pressure of blood
  43. Most numerous type of phagocyte...
    neutrophil
  44. Constant region of light chain in antibody consists of...
    106 aminon acids
  45. An immunoglobulin (antibody molecule) consists of...
    2 heavy and 2 light polypeptide chains
  46. What does not describe phagocytosis?
    Major component of body's 3rd line of defense
  47. Antibody produced after inital contact with antigen is...
    IgM
  48. Antibody associated with allergic reactions is...
    IgE
  49. According to clonal selection theory, antigens select lymphocyte clones by...
    the shape of receptors on lymphocyte's plasma membrane
  50. What can activate complement?
    Properdin
  51. Part of antibody that combines with antigen is...
    variable region
  52. What cells are not involved in nonspecific immunity?
    lymphocytes
  53. macrophages sensitize...
    T cells
  54. Immune system's ability to attack foreign bodies but spare our cells is called...
    self-tolerance
  55. What substance can destroy pathogens by chemically hydrolyzing them?
    enzymes
  56. What is not part of the inflammation response?
    Formation of antibodies
  57. When an antigen attaches to a naive B cell, it becomes...
    all the above. (memory, plasma, effector B)
  58. In first stage, B cells are not known by...
    effector B cells
  59. If blood test said there were high IgM antibodies, it could mean...
    person's body is responding to intial exposure to antigen
  60. Systemic lupus erythematosus is an example of...
     autoimmune condition that is caused by self- antigens being attacked
  61. HIV damages the immune system by...
    invading T cells
  62. Leukemia patient was exposed to chickenpox and her doctor prescribed interferon. Why?
    It could inhibit chickenpox from developing
  63. What is not used for parenteral administration?
    by mouth
  64. Parenteral solutions are given to...
    do all the above
  65. Abnormal condtions that cause fluid and electrolyte output to exceed input do not include...
    drinking liquids too fast
  66. The first thing that happens when adrenal cortex is stimulated to increase secretion of aldosterone is...
    increase kidney tubule reabsorption of sodium
  67. Juxtaglomerular cerlls are located...
    in kidney
  68. What pairs are almost identical chemically?
    Plasma and interstitual fluid
  69. Per Starling's law, what is the greatest pressure at arterial end of capillaries?
    bllod hydrostatic pressure
  70. Edema is abnormally larg amt of fluid in...
    intercellular spaces
  71. If 2 electrodes with a weak charge were placed in a NaCl solution, the negative electrode would attract...
    cations
  72. If 2 electrodes w/ a weak current were placed in a NaCl solution, the positive electrode would attract...
    anions and chloride ions
  73. With an equal milligram percent in solution, calcium would have          than potassium.
    not enough info is given
  74. Which 2 forces tent to move fluid out of blood vessels?
    blood hydrostatic pressure adn interstitual fluid colloid pressure
  75. What is not true of NaCl?
    It has the same type of bonds as glucose
  76. The subfornical organ is located...
    roof of third ventricle of brain
  77. The regulation of acid-base balance in the body fluids refers to control of...
    hydrogen ion concentration
  78. Which will have the greatest concentration of hydrogen ions?
    pH 2
  79. The most acidic substance in body is...
    stomach acid
  80. Solution with pH of 7 would contain         times the number of hydrogen ions as a solution with a pH of 8
    10
  81. Ketone bodies are associated with cellular metabolism of...
    fats
  82. What is classified as an acid-forming food?
    meat, eggs, poultry
  83. normal pH range for blood is...
    7.36 to 7.41
  84. An increase in resp rate would not result in decrease  of...
    pH
  85. Hyperventilation can result in loss of consciousness because...
    of alkalosis
  86. The more hydrogen ions excreted by renal tubules, the ...
    fewer potassium ions excreted
  87. What would be important in treating metabolic alkalosis?
    chloride ions
  88. A solution with pH of 6 would have a hydrogen ion concentration of...
    0.000001 per liter
  89. A solution with pH of 6 would have...
    fewer hydrogen ions than a solution of pH of 4
  90. Which is not a weak acid?
    Na2HPO4
  91. In the body, what might be used to buffer a strong acid like HCl?
    NaHCO3
  92. In the body, what might be used to buffer NaOH?
    H2CO3
  93. The resp center is stimulated if the...
    amt of CO2 in atrterial blood increase
  94. What is true of hypoventilation?
    All is true
  95. The numeric value of pH represents the...
    negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
  96. If HCl were bufferd by NaHCO3, what would not occur?
    formation of water
  97. If NaOH were buffered by H-HCO3, what would not occur?
    # of hydroxide ions would greatly increase.
  98. If NaOH were buffered by H-HCO3, what would occur?
    slight rise in pH
  99. How is the renal tubule excretion of ammonia involed in maintaining the acid-base balance?
    Decrease in blood pH accelerates tubule excretion of both hydrogen and ammonia. Increase in blood pH produces opposite, thus maintaining balance
  100. Reason hyperventilation can result in loss of consciousness.
    Increase inhydrogen ion concentration above certain level depress the CNS and therefore produces symptoms such as disorientation and coma

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