Unit 1 (Cell Biology)

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Unit 1 (Cell Biology)
2013-01-21 23:41:36
Radiation Biology

Unit 1. Overview of Cell Biology
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  1. the branch of science concerned with the effects of ionizing radiation on living systems:
    radiation biology
  2. the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms:
    a cell
  3. when you define the properties of a cell, you are in fact defining:
    the properties of life
  4. the activity of an organism is dependent on:
    both the individual and collective activities of its cells
  5. according to _________________, the biochemical activities of cells are
    determined and made possible by the specific subcellular structures of cells.
    the principle of complementarity
  6. the continuity of life has a ____________ basis.
  7. smallest unit of protoplasm capable of independent existence:
    the cell
  8. groups of cells with the same function:
  9. groups of tissues that work together to perform a specialized function:
  10. group of organs that work together to perform a common function:
  11. —systems grouped together:
  12. any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon:
    organic compound
  13. give four examples of organic compounds:
    • protein
    • carbohydrate
    • nucleic acid
    • lipid
  14. basic building blocks of cells:
  15. give the components of protein, and some examples:
    • components: amino acids
    • examples: insulin, albumin, hemoglobin, enzymes
  16. provide energy necessary for cellular functions:
  17. give the components of carbohydrates, and some examples:
    • components: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
    • examples: starch, glycogen, lactose, sucrose
  18. direct cellular activities & transmit genetic information between cells and generations:
    nucleic acid (DNA)
  19. give the components of nucleic acid (DNA):
    • sugar
    • phosphate
    • nitrogenous bases
    • hydrogen
  20. plays a role in protein synthesis:
    nucleic acid (RNA)
  21. give the components of nucleic acid (RNA):
    • sugar
    • phosphate
    • nitrogenous bases
  22. RNA is made up of everything that makes up DNA except:
  23. its functions are various: store energy, protection, etc.
  24. give the components of lipids, and some examples:
    • components: differs with type
    • examples: cholesterol, castor oil, steroids (vitamin D, sex hormones, etc)
  25. a small, watery, compartment filled with chemicals and a complete copy of the organism's genome:
  26. name the two major sections that make up a cell's structure:
    • cytoplasm
    • nucleus
  27. All metabolic functions in the cell occur in the:
  28. _________ means "building up," while _________ means "breaking down."
    • anabolism
    • catabolism
  29. the part of the cell that contains genetic information and directs all cellular functions:
    the nucleus
  30. specialized structures within the cell performing specific functions:
  31. be familiar with the major organelles (12):
    • cell membrane
    • endoplasmic reticulum
    • mitochondria
    • lysosomes
    • ribosomes
    • golgi complex
    • nuclear membrane
    • nucleus
    • chromosomes
    • genes
    • DNA
    • RNA
    • 1. nucleolus
    • 2. nucleus
    • 3. ribosome
    • 4. vesicle
    • 5. rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • 6. golgi apparatus
    • 7. cytoskeleton
    • 8. smooth endoplasmic reliculum
    • 9. mitochondria
    • 10. vacuole
    • 11. cytoplasm
    • 12. lysosome
    • 13. centrioles
  32. located in the cytoplasm and monitors exchanges between cell and environment:
    cell membrane
  33. located in the cytoplasm, plays a part in protein synthesis and is dotted with ribosomes:
    rough endoplasmic reticulum
  34. located in the cytoplasm and plays a part in the synthesis of substances other than protein:
    smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  35. located in the cytoplasm & the nucleus and controls protein:
  36. RNA is a chemical similar to:
    a single strand of DNA
  37. in RNA, the letter ____, which stands for _______, is substituted for the letter ____, in the genetic code.
    • U
    • Uracil
    • T
  38. —delivers DNA's genetic message to the cytoplasm of a cell:
  39. the three types of RNA:
    • mRNA (messenger RNA)
    • tRNA (transfer RNA)
    • rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
  40. carries a code from DNA to a ribosome where it is transferred to tRNA:
  41. searches the cytoplasm for the amino acid for which it is coded, then attaches to the amino acid and carries it to the ribosome for protein synthesis:
  42. template for protein synthesis:
  43. specifies a certain protein in the sequence of amino acids that comprise the protein:
    each set of three bases of mRNA, called codons
  44. the only RNA that can go back and forth between nucleus and cytoplasm is the:
  45. —the sequence of a strand of mRNA is based on:
    the sequence of a complementary strand of DNA
  46. —located in the cytoplasm and plays a part in protein synthesis:
  47. —ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis which is where:
    RNA is translated into protein
  48. due to the demand of protein synthesis, ribosomes can number:
    in the hundreds or thousands
  49. in what two states do ribosomes exist in the cell (location):
    • floating freely in the cytoplasm
    • bound to the endoplasmic reticulum
  50. located in the cytoplasm, the sites of aerobic respiration, and generally are the major energy production centers of the cell:
  51. produce energy by oxidizing carbohydrates & lipids: 
  52. a vital protein that encourages a biochemical reaction, usually speeding it up:
  53. what two items compete to bind with enzymes?
    • inhibitor
    • substrate
  54. what needs to bind with an enzyme for a reaction to occur?
    • a substrate
    • (if an inhibitor binds instead, inhibition occurs)
  55. located in the cytoplasm and contains enzymes capable of breaking down proteins & carbohydrates, and destroying the cell:
  56. —located in the cytoplasm and controls the concentration & segregation of products for secretion; carbohydrate synthesis:
    golgi complex
  57. located in the nucleus and controls the separation of nucleus & cytoplasm;  permits
    selective passage of molecules from nucleus to cytoplasm and vice versa:
    nuclear membrane
  58. —located in the nucleus and contains most of the RNA:
  59. located in the nucleus and directs all cellular activity (reproduction, metabolism, etc.);  contains genetic information in code form:
  60. what is the structure of DNA?
    • a double helix
    • (looks something like an immensely long ladder twisted into a helix, or coil)
  61. what makes up the "rungs" of the DNA ladder?
    • the four nitrogenous bases:
    • purines: adenine and guanine
    • pyrimidines: thymine and cytosine
  62. describe how the nitrogenous bases of DNA are paired:
    • —adenine always pairs with thymine
    • guanine always pairs with cytosine
  63. the order of bases in a segment are called:
    DNA sequencing
  64. —The sides of the DNA ladder are formed by:
    and the rungs:
    • sides: a backbone of sugar and phosphate molecule
    • rungs: nucleotide bases joined weakly in the middle by hydrogen bonds
  65. the rungs of the DNA ladder are bases that bond to each other through ___________ and to ____________ on the side rails.
    • hydrogen bonds
    • sugar molecules
  66. one of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA:
  67. what does a nucleotide consist of?
    • a base, plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphoric acid
    • (the base is one of four chemicals: adenine, thymine, guanine, or cytosine)
  68. the functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring:
  69. —located in the nucleus and directs cellular activities; contains DNA:
  70. pieces of DNA, and most contain the information for making a specific protein:
  71. one of the threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell:
  72. located in the nucleus and directs cellular activities; contains genes:
  73. different kinds of organisms have different numbers of:
  74. the number of chromosomes in somatic cells:
  75. in humans, the diploid number is:
  76. describe the distribution of the chromosomes in human somatic cells:
    • 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all
    • 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes
    • each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers
  77. the number of chromosomes in a sperm or egg cell:
    • haploid
    • (half the diploid)
  78. refers to the number of chromosomes in a normal somatic cell for a given species:
    diploid number (2n)
  79. refers to the number of chromosomes in a normal germ cell for a specific species:
    haploid number (n)
  80. the process by which the DNA double helix unwinds and makes an exact copy of itself:
    DNA replication
  81. be familiar with the process of DNA replication:
    1. parent DNA molecule; two complementary strands of base-paired nucleotides

    2. Parental strands unwind and separate at several points along the DNA molecule, forming replication forks

    3. Each parental strand provides a template that attracts and binds complementary bases, A with T and G with C

    4.Sugar-phosphate backbone of daughter strands closed. Each new DNA molecule consists of one daughter strand, as a result of semiconservative replication
  82. name the two types of cellular division:
    • mitosis
    • meiosis
  83. Process of somatic cellular reproduction whereby one parent cell divides to form two daughter cells with the same chromosome number and DNA content as the original parent cell:
  84. all body cells with the exception of reproductive cells:
    somatic cells
  85. death of the cell:
  86. in general, cells are most radiosensitive in _______________ and most resistant in ______________.
    • late M and G2 phases
    • late S phase
  87. in which phase of the cell cycle do many cancer drugs like taxol act, freezing the process and causing apoptosis?
    M phase
  88. when is the cell cycle of G1 begun?
    when the cell senses growth signals or mitogens, starting the process of cell division
  89. what occurs after 8-10 hours into the G1 phase of the cell cycle?
    the cell crosses a restriction point that acts are the point of no return...the cell is committed to divide or die
  90. at what point of the cell cycle is DNA synthesized?
    • S phase
    • (many cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs act here to disrupt DNA synthesis)
  91. at what point of the cell cycle does the cell arrange and check chromosomes?
    G2/M phase
  92. how many checkpoints are there in the cell cycle?
    • four:
    • G1 restriction point
    • G1/S checkpoint
    • G2/M major checkpoint
    • M major spindle checkpoint
  93. four key parts of prophase:
    • chromatin becomes filamentous and visible
    • chromatids become attached at the centromere
    • —chromosomes are visible—
    • spindle fibers appear
  94. three key parts of metaphase:
    • —nucleolus and nuclear membrane have disappeared
    • —spindle fibers attach to each chromatid
    • chromatids align on the equatorial plate
  95. three key parts of anaphase:
    • —centromeres break apart
    • —chromosomes move away from center of cell
    • furrow appears
  96. three key parts of telophase:
    • —the nuclear membrane and both nuclei appear
    • —the cytoplasm and organelles divide equally
    • —the process of cell division is complete
  97. list the order of the four stages of mitosis:
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
  98. a process by which the genome of a diploid germ cell, which is composed of long segments of DNA packaged into chromosomes, undergoes DNA replication followed by two rounds of division, resulting in four haploid cells:
  99. if meiosis produces gametes, these cells must ___________________________ before any new growth can occur.
    fuse during fertilization to create a new diploid cell, or zygote
  100. each of the four haploid cells resulting from the process of meiosis contains:
    one complete set of chromosomes, or half of the genetic content of the original cell
  101. —a mature reproductive cell capable of function in fertilization or conjugation:
    gamete/germ cell/genetic cell
  102. the female germ cell:
    oogonium (egg)
  103. the male germ cell:
    spermatogonium (sperm)
  104. meiosis II does not include:
    chromosomal replication
  105. the final result of meiosis II is: 
    23 chromosomes in each cell, allowing for 23 of each sex after fertilization is complete
  106. suggest looking over this chart:
    also, may wanna watch the youtube videos in the powerpoint. they're not included in this set of cards.
  107. who invented the diode tube with a partial vacuum (which roentgen was using when he discovered x-ray)?
    william crookes
  108. who produced the first radiograph without knowing what caused a shadow of coins on a photographic plate?
    author willis goodspeed (1890)
  109. who discovered x-rays?
    wilhelm conrad roentgen (1895)
  110. who found that uranium emitted rays that passed through paper and darkened photographic film?
    henri becquerel (1896)
  111. who announced the discovery of radium, which also emitted penetrating rays, and applied the term radioactivity to the behavior of these materials?
    marie and pierre curie (1898)
  112. who noticed a skin reaction (reddening and irritation) induced by radium he had been carrying in a tube in his vest pocket?
    henri becquerel (soon after 1898)
  113. who deliberately exposed a small area of skin to radium and observed the effects?
    pierre curie (soon after 1898)
  114. who began experimental radiobiology by exposing rabbits' testes to x-rays and documenting effects?
    j. bergonie and l. tribondeau (1904)
  115. the radiosensitivity of cells is directly proportional to their reproductive activity (proliferation rate) and inversely proportional to their differentiation:
    law of bergonie and tribondeau (1906)
  116. who laid the groundwork for modern radiotherapy by placing the principle of fractionation on a firm clinical basis?
    henri coutard (1932)
  117. who invented the cyclotron, a machine capable of accelerating charged particles to very high speeds which were used as bullets and shot into the nuclei of target atoms to study nuclear structure (used today to produce radionuclides for nuclear medicine applications)?
    e.o. lawrence (1932)
  118. who studied indirect effects of ionizing radiation in 1936?
    h. ficke
  119. who studied indirect effects of ionizing radiation in 1947?
    d.e. lea
  120. who discovered that oxygen increases the effects of ionizing radiation on living matter (oxygen effect)?
    thoday and read (1947)
  121. who studied both indirect effect and oxygen effect of radiation?
    l.h. gray (1953)
  122. who produced the first successful culture of mammalian cells in artificial media (hela cells) and exposed these cells to radiation in vitro and plotted cell survival curves?
    puck and associates (1956)
  123. who showed that cells can sometimes recover from sublethal doses of radiation?
    elkind (1950s)