Chapter 6,9 and 10.txt

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Author:
adrienne.fountain
ID:
193347
Filename:
Chapter 6,9 and 10.txt
Updated:
2013-01-17 01:44:36
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world history
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Civilizations in Americas, Byzantine Empire and Russia, Muslim World
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  1. Farming methods and Advances in Learning of Incas
    • Farming: cutting and burning, raised beds and terraces to prevent erosion from rain.
    • Learning advances: 365 day calendar, numbering system, concept of zero
  2. Farming methods and Advances in Learning of Mayas
    • Farming: chinampas, or floating gardens.
    • Learning advances: treated dental cavities, set broken bones, established steam baths
  3. Farming methods and Advances in Learning of Aztecs
    • Farming methods: steps in the mountain called step terraces, carved strips into hills, stored food in case of famine.
    • Learning advances: learned to make alloys, antiseptics, anesthesia, mummification
  4. Government of I, M, A
    • Incas: large city-states, each ruled by own leader.
    • Mayans: ruler to nobles, priests and military leaders to traders to commoners to serfs and slaves to debtors.
    • Aztecs: Sappa Inca held absolute power, son of sun, empire's religious leader, villages strictly regulated
  5. Method or recording information for Aztecs
    Quipus knot string
  6. Leaders of Byzantine Empire and Russia (2 and 5)
    • Byzantine
    • Constantine: established Constantinople, as capital of Eastern Roman Empire converted to christianity. 
    • Justinian: emperor during Byzantine Empire, Justinian code, Corpus Julis Civilus, also church ruler, wife Theodora.
    • Russia
    • Rurik: Rus prince, ruled Novgorod in north
    • Princess Olga of Kiev: converted to Byzantine christianityYaroslav the Wise: presided over Kiev in golden age, strong ties between church and government
    • Ivan the Great: recovered Russian territories from Genghis Khan, limited power to boyars (landowning nobles), first tsar
    • Ivan the Terrible: first to be crowned tsar, killed his own son, had Oprichniki which were secret police that slaughtered towns if there wars suspected disloyalty, absolute power
  7. What led to the downfall and who finally conquered them?
    Schism: succession, court intrigues, wars, fourth crusade sacked and raided Constantinople, western christians ruled for 57 years
  8. Leadership in Russia
    Rurik, other Rus princes, Princess Olga of Kiev, her brandon Vladimir, his son Yaroslav the Wise, Genghis Khan, his grandson Yatu, Ivan the Great, his grandson Ivan the Terrible
  9. Capital of Russia and Byzantine Empire
    • Russia: Kiev
    • Capital of Byzantine: Constantinople
  10. Cultural heritage of Byzantine Empire
    blended christian and greek, contributed to Renaissance,icons, mosaics and architecture
  11. Schism (6 things)
    • 1. Roman Catholic vs. Eastern Orthodox
    • 2. pope vs. patriarch
    • 3. no icons vs. icons
    • 4. christmas vs. eatser
    • 5. clergy not married vs. clergy married
    • 6. latin vs. greek
  12. Sunni/Shiite
    • Sunnis: elected officials, 90% today
    • Shiite: relative after Shiat Ali
  13. Common beliefs with Judaism and Christianity (3 thing)
    • 1. holy scriptures
    • 2. same God
    • 3. prophets
  14. Ottoman Empire
    • turkish speaking nomads that came from central asia
    • conquered constantinople and renamed Istanbul
    • Golden Age under Suleiman
    • declined after Suleimans death
  15. Safavid empire
    • Shiite muslims in persia or modern day Iraq
    • King was Shah
    • golden age under Shah Abbas, centralized government
    • glory faded after his death
  16. Muhammad
    • born in Mecca 570 AD
    • heard voice of Gabriel, his call
    • left Mecca in threat of murder by pagans
    • went to Medina, converted many
    • reconquered Mecca
  17. Pillars of Islam (5)
    • Declaration of Faith
    • Prayer 5X a day
    • Charity
    • Fasting
    • Hajj
    • 6th is Jihad
  18. Islam and Women
    equal in Quran, expected to dress modestly, not supposed to kill women
  19. Umayyads
    • Meccan clan after successor of Muhammad
    • set up new capital in Damascus
    • bold efficient fighting
    • taxed non muslims, but accepted
  20. Abbasids
    • Followers of Abu al Abbas, Shiite muslims
    • killed all Umayyads except one
    • built faith on equality
    • moved capital from Damascus to Baghdad
  21. Golden Age of Muslim Civilization
    trading networks, 750 BC, guilds, irrigation, slavery, social mobility, domed mosques, algebra, hospitals, translated works
  22. Cause of rise of Islam
    • based on equality
    • weakness of Persian and Byzantine Empires
  23. Advances in medicine made by Muslim physicians
    • Canon of Medicine written by Ibn Sina or Avicenna
    • medical achievements by al Razi, physician at Baghdad hospital

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