Chapters 8, 13, 14.txt

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Author:
adrienne.fountain
ID:
193360
Filename:
Chapters 8, 13, 14.txt
Updated:
2013-01-17 02:59:25
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World History
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HIgh and Late Middle Ages, Renaissance and Reformation, Age of Exploration
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  1. Royal Power: England and France
    • England:400-500s, Anglo-saxons conquer most of Britain, called England, William the Conqueror, required allegiance, wrote through consensus
    • France Hugh Capet elected to take throne, capetian family very powerful, Philip Agustus gained control of English lands, Louis IV persecuted jews, led two crusades, Philip IV tried to tax clergy and capture pope
  2. Crusades and their impact
    • economy bad, so sacked and raided Constantinople, made relations even worse with north and south, cultural diffusion, increase power in pope, started brutal crusades against any other religion
    • The Black Death: global impacts
    • bad on economy, took many lives, halted trading, inflation
  3. Church’s Upheaval
    reformers chose own pope to rule, another schism, start of protestant thoughts, Jan Hus brought back church ideas, burned at stake
  4. Doomsday Book
    William the Conqueror had complete consensus, listed every castle, field and pigpen, name from God's final day that no one can escape
  5. Making of Parliament
    Great Council, to keep the Magna Carta, had role to approve money for wars, right to approve any new taxes, meant to limit power of monarchs
  6. Holy Roman emperors’ authority
    Under charlemagne, had much authority over oat of eastern Europe
  7. Black Death: Economic issues related to plague
    one in three people died, so labor prices increased, peasants rampages, did not recover for more than 100 years
  8. Hundred Years’ War – weapon advances
    longbows,for archers, longer bows, can go farther
  9. Humanism
    praise of human philosophy and way of life
  10. Cradle of the Renaissance-Italy
    main trading routes, muslim trading, city states
  11. Perspective
    Seeing depth in a picture, 3D
  12. Da Vince
    inventor, sketches of human bodies and nature, models and was a doctor
  13. Michelangelo
    Made the Pieta, David and was a melancholy genius, used perspective
  14. Raphael
    blended classical with christian styles, loved to do Madonna, also painted school of Athens, with all of the famous stars at the time
  15. Renaissance Lit.-The Book of the Courtier, The Prince
    • Book of courtier: written by Baldassare Castiglone, describes manner and how to act
    • The Prince: written by Niccolo Machievelli on how to gain and maintain power, was vicious and politically shrewd
  16. Johann Gutenberg-Printing Press
    Made printed books a lot cheaper and for everyday people
  17. Durer
    One of first artists affected by Renaissance, invented engraving and new ways of painting
  18. Van Eyck
    Flemish painter, portrayed townspeople and religious scenes
  19. Rubens
    Flemish painter who blended realistic tradition with freedom of the Italian Renaissance, had a wide known knowledge for mythology
  20. Northern Humanists and Writer: Erasmus, Thomas More, Rabelais, Shakespeare
    • Erasmus: made greek edition of Bible
    • Sir Thomas More: social reformer, made Utopia
    • Rabelais: french humanist, made chronicle of two giants called Gargantua and Pantagruel, deeply religious
    • Shakespeare: 37 plays, universal themes
  21. Protestant Reformation (6)
    • challenged the church
    • worldy affairs
    • political power
    • wars for secular rulers
    • popes who lived lavish lives
    • sold indulgences
  22. Martin Luther: teachings, ideas spread, Peace of Augsburg
    • teachings: all equal access to Bible, banned indulgences and confessions, pilgrimages and prayers to saints
    • Ideas spread: printing press
    • Peace of Ausburg: signed in 1555, north chose lutheranism, south chose catholicism
    • Early Revolts:
    • peasants and Martin Luther revolted
  23. 95 Theses
    Arguments against indulgences that John Tetzel offered in Wittenberg
  24. John Calvin-Switzerland’s Reformation
    rejected elaborate church rituals, predestination, saints and sinners, saw themselves as new chosen people, worked hard, fled to Americas, called Calvinists
  25. Portugal: exploration, motivation
    • Europeans traded with Asians before Renaissance
    • Black Death disrupted economy
    • population growing, need for spices
    • arab and italian merchants controlled trade
    • tried to find direct route to Indonesia where the spices were
  26. Columbus: Isabella and Ferdinand
    wanted to reach the East Indies by sailing west, hoped to bring wealth, Portugal refused to sponsor him
  27. Technologies that improved exploration
    Cartographers who were mapmakers
  28. Dividing the globe in half
    Pope divided new land into all Spanish on one side and Portugese on the other, although the only country Portugal eventual got was Brazil
  29. Explorers involved in the search for a direct route
    • Vasco de Gama (Portugal): sailed around the cape of Good Hope and established ports on the Indian Ocean
    • Christopher Columbus (Spain): sailed west across the Atlantic to Caribbean
    • Vasco Nunez de Balboa (Spain): crossed Panama, reaching Pacific Ocean
    • Ferdinand Magellan (Spain) circumnavigated the globe
  30. Portugal gains Foothold
    Mombasa and Malichi, did not go to interior, when declined, trading posts overrun
  31. African Slave Trade
    • Plantations made slaves in more demand
    • Europeans never went to Africa to get slaves, they were sent to them
    • sent to Americas
  32. Expanding European Presence
    • Built Cape Town on southern tip of Africa, where dutch farmers called boers settled
    • Britain and France reached Senegal
  33. Europeans in South and S.E. Asia
    Portugal was first, , used firepower of cannons, controlled spice trade
  34. Portuguese, Dutch and Spain in S and SE Asia
    • Portugese: won favor of princes to battle off other European countries
    • Dutch: first to challenge Portugese, voyages finally returned with spices, Dutch East India Trading Company
    • Spain: Magellen claimed Philippines for Spain, set out to convert
  35. Europeans in India
    British vs. French in India, each country had own sepoy
  36. Ming China
    no interest in Europe, missionaries tried to convert them but failed
  37. Manchus
    conquered in 1600's confucians dn restricted foreign traders
  38. Korea and Japan
    • Korea: Japanese invade Korea, then manchus invade Korea. After they gain stability, they isolate themselves
    • Japan: first welcomed foreigners and british firearms and printing press, but when Spain seized the Philippines, thought of as threat and remained isolated for 200 years

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