Nucleic Acids

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Anonymous
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193416
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Nucleic Acids
Updated:
2013-01-17 14:50:33
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Biology
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Description:
Advanced Higher Biology - Unit One - Nucleic Acids
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  1. What are the two types of nucleic acid?
    • DNA
    • RNA
  2. Which elements do nucleic acids contain?
    C, H, O, N and P
  3. Nucleic acids are polymers (long chain molecules) composed of many monomers, what are these monomers called?
    Nucleotides
  4. What three parts are nucleotides composed of?
    • Pentose sugar
    • A phosphate group
    • Nitrogenous base
  5. What are the four main nitrogenous bases?
    Adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine
  6. In RNA what is the name of the nitrogenous base that replaces thymine?
    Uracil
  7. What is the difference between a deoxyribose sugar and a ribose sugar?
    A deoxyribose sugar has an -H on cabon 2 whereas a ribose sugar has an -OH group on carbon 2
  8. Which nitrogenous bases are pyramidines?
    Thymine and cytosine (and uracil in RNA)
  9. Which nitrogenous bases are purines?
    Adenine and guanine
  10. Do pyramidines have a double or single ring structure?
    They have a single ring structure
  11. Do purines have a double or single ring structure?
    They have a double ring structure
  12. How many hydrogen bonds form between guanine and cytosine?
    3
  13. How many hydrogen bonds form between adenine and thymine?
    2
  14. What type of bond is formed between nucleotides?
    Phosphodiester bonds
  15. During what type of reaction is a phosphodiester bond formed?
    A condensation/dehydration reaction
  16. Where does the phosphodiester bond form?
    The phosphate group on carbon 5 and the hydroxyl group on carbon 3
  17. How are DNA strands read?
    From the 5 prime to the 3 prime
  18. DNA strands run in the opposite direction from one another, the word used to describe this is...?
    antiparallel
  19. What enzyme is involved in the creation of DNA?
    DNA polymerase
  20. What direction does this enzyme only work in?
    The 5' to 3' direction
  21. What enzyme joins together the fragments of the lagging strand of DNA?
    DNA ligase
  22. Give three ways in which DNA differs from RNA
    • DNA is double stranded / RNA is single stranded
    • Thymine in DNA / Uracil in RNA
    • Deoxyribose sugar in DNA / Ribose sugar in RNA
  23. What are the three types of RNA?
    • mRNA
    • tRNA
    • mRNA
  24. What is RNA?
    RNA is the template for translation of genes into proteins transferring amino acids to the ribosome
  25. What does mRNa do?
    mRNA carries information from the DNa to the ribosomes, which are the site of protein synthesis. 
  26. What does tRNA do?
    tRNA transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis
  27. What is rRNA?
    rRNA is a component of ribosomes

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