Chp 15 Social Behavior

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Chp 15 Social Behavior
2010-05-15 03:00:54
Chp Social Behavior

Chp 15 Social Behavior
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  1. Define the fundamental attribution error and and the self-serving bias
    Fundamental attribution error refers to observers' bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others' behavior

    Self-serving bias is the tendency to attribute one's successes to personal factors and one's failures to situational factors
  2. Identify four key factors in attraction
    Physical attractiveness, Similarity effects,Reciprocity effects, and Romantic ideals
  3. Define the "matching hypothesis"
    The matching hypothesis proposes that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners
  4. Evaluate the old saying, "opposites attract"
    According to research, People who have similarities are more likely to be together, and opposites do not attract
  5. Distinguish between passionate love and companionate love
    • Passionate love is a complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion
    • Companionate love is warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined
    • *Research suggests that,as a general rule, companionate love is more strongly related to relationship satisfaction than passionate love
  6. Identify three different attachment styles
    • Secure attachment, anxious-ambivalent attachment, avoidant attachment
    • (refer to chart)
  7. State how men and women typically differ in terms of what attracts them
    Evidence indicates that during courtship men tend to emphasize their material resources, whereas women are more likely to work at enhancing their appearance
  8. Summarize Asch's findings on conformity, and the determinants of conformity
    • Asch's reasoned that as groups grow larger, conformity increases-up to a point-
    • Group size and group unanimity turned out to be key determinants of conformity
  9. Summarize Milgrams' laboratory studies of obedience, and what they tell us about the power of the situation to cause good people to do terrible things
    Milgram wanted to study this tendency to obey authority figures. Milgram argued that strong pressure from an authority figure can make decent people do indecent things
  10. Give evidence that victims in emergencies are less likely to receive help from large numbers of people than from individuals , and give an explanation for this effect.
    Evidence states that getting help declines as group size increases. People already assume that someone else is going to help. Diffusion of responsibility
  11. Apply the same explanation to social loafing
    As group size increases, the responsibility for getting a job done is divided among more people, and many group members ease up because their individual contribution is less recognizable
  12. Use the concepts of group polarization and groupthink to explain why groups sometims make extreme or bad decisions
    • Group polarization occurs when group discussion strengthens a group's dominant point of view and produces a shift toward a more extreme decision in that direction
    • Groupthink occurs when members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critcal thinking in arriving at a decision

    • Group polarization when people start to shift toward the person who seems right
    • Groupthink- compromise out of concern for the group, what is best for the group, thinking as a group, although you may not get the right solution
  13. Tell the difference between prejudice and discrimination
    Attitudes and behaviors do not necessarily correspond
  14. Identify sources of prejudicial attitudes
    observational learning and operant learning