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How did political parties develop (explain the characteristics of the Federalist Party and the Democratic-Republicans Party)?
- Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson had different views on how the country should go. The country then divided in to the Federalist and the Democratic-Republicans.
- Fed.- Strong national government. Loose constitutional view. Supported the national bank. Alexander Hamilton.
- D-R.- Limited national government. Strict constitutional view. Against the national bank. Thomas Jefferson
What problems did President Adams face with France, including the XYZ affair, and how were the problems resoled?
Adams sent 3 ambassadors over to france to talk to their foreign minister. They said they would only talk to them for 10 million dollars. The US was furious, so they cancelled all treaties they had with france. Things were tense until they resembled peace at the Convention of 1800.
Describe the Alien and Sedition acts.
When Adams cancelled our treaties with France, federalists were angry because they supported France. Congress (which had a federalist majority) passed the Alien and Sedition Acts. This targeted immigrants. This also outlawed saying or writing harmful things about the government.
What happened in the Presidential election of 1800?
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr (both Democratic-Republicans) tied. The House Of Representatives had to vote to break the tie. I took 36 votes to declare Jefferson the president, and Burr the vice-president.
What were some of Jefferson's achievements and his philosophy of government?
-Jefferson was a lawyer, and a skilled architect, designer/inventor, scientist, violinist, and horseman. He thought the government should be based on agriculture. He believed the federal government should have less power and less debt.
What was Marbury vs. Madison and why is it significant?
It was a supreme court case presided over by chief justice John Marshall. Marshall was a federalist who was appointed by Adams. This case established judicial review.
What were the details surrounding the Louisiana Purchase?
France had all of the Louisiana Territory. The port of New Orleans had recently been closed to use by americans. So, Jefferson asked Napoleon Bonaparte (france's leader) to buy the port. Napoleon gave him a bargain. He offered to sell the whole territory for only 15 million dollars. At first Jefferson was hesitant, because he didn't know if it was constitutional or not. He then realized that the offer was just too good. In 1803, they bought it.
What were the experiences and achievements of the Lewis and Clark expedition and Zebulon Pike's expedition?
Lewis and Clark were given the job to explore the land that was gained in the Louisiana Purchase. They were sent to find geographic and scientific information. Sacagewea helped them on their journey. Zebulon Pike explored the southern parts of the Louisiana Territory. He brought back descriptions of the Great Plains and the Rio Grande River Valley.
What foreign policy challenges did Jefferson and James Madison (who became president in 1808) face?
Jefferson wanted the US to stay separated from foreign countries. This was hard though. In 1805 Britain (who was still at war with France) began restricting US shipping across the Atlantic Ocean. They also interfered with US trade by the impressment of thousands of American sailors to work on British ships. Jefferson then encouraged congress to pass The Embargo Acts of 1807, which closed american ports to british ships and said that american ships could not sail to foreign ports. This law was a disaster and was hated by american merchants, so it was soon replaced. In 1808 when Madison became president, his solution was to let the US trade with any countries except Britain and France.
What were the causes of the War of 1812?
- 1. Impressment of US sailors on British ships.
- 2. British interference with American shipping.
- 3. Britain was supporting Native Americans to resist American settlers in the Northwest Territory.
What were the two phases of the War of 1812?
In the first phase, Britain did not give much effort, because they were still at war with France. In the second phase, Britain gave it it's full attention, because they had defeated france. During this time, Francis Scott Key wrote the Star Spangled Banner. Andrew Jackson led american troops to victory at the Battle of New Orleans at the end of the war.
What were the effects of the War of 1812?
- The war ended in late 1814 with the Treaty of Ghent.
- 1. It increased American patriotism.
- 2. It weakened Native American resistance.
- 3. US manufacturing grew.