Thinking about the perceptions, thoughts, emotions, motives, and behaviors of self, other people, groups, and even whole systems
False belief task
Asses the understanding that people can hold incorrect beliefs and that these beliefs, even though incorrect, can influence their behavior
Theory of mind
Understanding that people have mental states such as desires, beliefs, and intentions and that these mental states guide their behavior
They appreciate that people do what they do because they desire certain things and because they believe that certain actions will fulfill their desires.
Age 2 when the theories of mind take shape. Toddlers talk about what they want and explain their own behavior and that of others in terms of wants and desires.
Neurons that are activated in both when they perform an action and when we observe someone perform the same action
The ability to adopt another persons' perspective and understand her thoughts and feelings in relation to your own.
Involves the ability to distinguish right from wrong, to act on this distinction, and to experience pride when we do right things and guilt or shame when we do not.
3 basic components:
Emotional, component consists of the feelings that surround right and wrong actions and that motivate moral thoughts and actions
Centers on how we conceptualize right and wrong and make a decision about how to behave, drawing on social cognitive skills such as role taking
Reflects how we behave when for example, we experience the temptation to cheat or are called upon to help a needy person
Emotion related to matters of right and wrong. Negative feelings as shame, guilt, anxiety, and fear of being detected- feeling that keep you from doing what you know is wrong.
Vicarious experiencing of another person's feelings. Ex. smiling at others for their good fortune or experiencing their distress
Positive social acts, such as helping or sharing, that reflect a concern for the welfare of others. Keeps us from doing harm to others
The thinking process involved in deciding whether an act is right or wrong
Mutual give and take by both parties in a human relationship
Piagets's Theory of Moral Development
Premoral period - during preschool years, children show little awareness or understanding of rules and cannot be considered moral beings.
Heteronomous - 6-10yrs take rules very seriously, believing that they are handed down by parents and other authority figures and are sacred and unalterable. They also judge rule violations as wrong based on the extent of damage done, not taking into account whether the violator had good or bad intentions.
Autonomous - age 10 or 11, appreciate rules are agreements between individuals- that can be changed through the consensus of those individuals. In judging actions, they pay more attention to whether that person's intentions were good or bad than to the consequences of the act
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Level 1: Preconventional Morality
Stage 3: Punishment-and Obedience Orientation
Stage 4: Instrumental Hedonism
Level 2: Conventional Morality
Stage 1: "Good boy/girl" Morality
Stage 2: Authority and Social Order-Maintaining Morality
Level 3: Postconventional morality
Stage 5: Morality of Contract, Individual rights, and Democratically Accepted Law
Stage 6: Morality of Individual Principles of Conscience
Kohlberg's Preconvetional Morality
Rules that are external to the self rather than internalized. What is right is what one can get away with or what is personally satisfying.
Kohlberg's Conventional Morality
The individual has internalized many moral values. Perspectives of others are clearly recognized and given serious consideration.
Kohlberg's Postconventional Morality
The individual defines what is right in terms of broad principles of justice that have validity apart from the views of particular authority figures. Transcends the perspectives of particular social groups or authorities and begin to take the perspective of all individuals.
Even though we know the difference between right and wrong, this allows us to avoid condemning ourselves when we engage in immoral behavior
Lacking any sense of morality
Mutually responsive orientation
develops between the caregiver and child - when there is a close, emotionally positive, and cooperative relationship in which child and caregiver are attached to each other and are sensitive to each other's needs.