Ch6- Hull

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  1. anticipatory frustration stimulus
    Proprioceptive (internal) stimuli that accompany the fractional anticipatory frustration reaction.
  2. avoidance conditioning
    The experimental arrangement whereby an organism can avoid experiencing an aversive stimulus by engaging in appropriate behavior. 
  3. biofeedback
    The information provided to individuals by some mechanical device concerning the status of one or more of their internal biological events. For example, a flashing light can be set to reflect heart rate, or an auditory signal can be triggered when blood pressure rises beyond a certain level.
  4. conditioned anticipatory frustration
    Fractional anticipatory frustration reactions and their stimuli conditioned to environmental events that accompany primary frustration. 
  5. conditioned inhibition
    In instrumental or operant conditioning, a learned response of not responding. Because responding produces fatigue and fatigue is a negative drive state, not responding is reinforcing. 
  6. Crespi effect
    The rapid change in performance level as the size of reinforcement is varied. 
  7. decremental reinforcer
    According to Mowrer, an unconditioned stimulus that causes a reduction in drive, such as when food is given to a hungry animal.
  8. distributed practice
    Learning a skill under the conditions in which practice trials are separated by a considerable length of time. 
  9. drive
    The condition that exists when there is a biological deficiency in the body. For all practical purposes, the terms drive and need mean the same thing. 
  10. drive reduction
    The satisfaction of a biological deficiency. Originally Hull thought it to be a necessary condition for learning. Hull later turned to stimulus reduction theory of learning.
  11. drive stimuli
    The stimuli that characteristically accompany a certain drive, such as the dryness of the mouth, lips, and throat that accompany the thirst drive. 
  12. drive stimulus reduction
    The reduction or removal of the stimuli that accompany a drive. This usually occurs before the drive itself is actually reduced; for example, the dryness of the mouth, lips, and throat are eliminated before the effects of drinking water can reach the brain and thereby reduce the thirst drive. 
  13. effective reaction potential
    Reaction potential minus the effects of Ir and sIr
  14. escape conditioning
    The experimental arrangement whereby an organism can terminate an aversive stimulus by engaging in appropriate behavior.
  15. fractional antedating goal response
    A response that is conditioned to the stimuli present prior to the ingestion of a primary reinforcer. The conditioned response is always some fraction of the goal response. For example, if the goal response is eating, the conditioned response would be minute chewing responses. Each conditioned response(rg) automatically produces a stimulus, which is  symbolized by sg. the rg-sg mechanism plays an important in Hull's explanation of chained behavior.
  16. fractional anticipatory frustration reaction
    Stimuli that precede primary frustration will develop the capacity to elicit some portion of the primary frustration response. 
  17. frustration-competition theory of extinction
    Spence's and Amsel's contention that extinction is caused by responses stimulated by frustration, which interfere with the performance of a previously learned response.
  18. frustration drive stimulus
    Aversive proprioceptive (internal) stimuli that accompany primary frustration.
  19. frustration effect
    The increased vigor of responses following nonreinforcement. For example, rats run faster following nonreinfocement than following reinforcement.
  20. generalized habit strength
    Habit strength from previous learning experiences that generalizes to a new learning experience because of the similarity between the new learning experience and older ones.
  21. habit family hierarchy
    A hierarchy of responses arranged according to their values of sEr. When a particular response is thwarted, the animal makes the next response available in its response repertory. Responses that result in the most rapid reinforcement have the greatest value of sEr and are, therefore, most likely to occur. If a response with the highest value of sEr is blocked, the response with the next highest value of sEr will occur, and so on. 
  22. habit strength
    A measure of the strength of association between a stimulus and a response. The magnitude of the habit strength depends on the number of reinforced pairings between the stimulus and the response. In the final version of Hull's theory, habits strength was the only learning variable; the other factors were performance variables. In other words, Hull believed that the only thing that affected learning directly was the number of reinforced trials.
  23. hypothetical deductive theory (logical deductive)
    A theory consisting of postulates and theorems. Postulates are assumptions that cannot be verified directly; theorems are deduced from the postulates, and they can be verified experimentally. if an experiment designed to test a theorem comes out in the predicted direction, its postulate is indirectly verified, and the theory gains strength. If the experiment does not come out in the predicted direction , the theory loses strength. A hypothetical deductive theory is consistently changing in light of experimental evidence.
  24. incentive motivation
    size of reinforcement. Originally (1943), Hull felt that incentive motivation affected learning, but he later (1952) concluded that it affected only performance. 
  25. incremental reinforcer
    According to Mowrer, an unconditional stimulus that causes an increase in drive, such as electric shock.
  26. interaction of sensory impulses
    Behavior is usually the result of many stimuli impinging on sensory receptors at any given time. The afferent (sensory) neural impulses caused by these stimuli interact, and their combined effect causes an efferent (motor) neural impulse and finally an overt response. 
  27. latency
    the time between the presentation of a stimulus and the occurrence of a learned response.
  28. latent learning
    learning that appears to take place independent of reinforcement and that remains dormant until the organism is given an incentive for translating what has been learned into behavior.
  29. law of contiguity
    when two or more events occur together, they become associated with one another.
  30. law of frequency
    The more often two events or more occur together, the stronger the association among them.
  31. massed practice
    Learning a skill under the conditions in which practice trials are separated by only a very short interval of time.
  32. momentary effective reaction potential
    Effective reaction potential minus the effects of Ir, sIr, and sOr.
  33. oscillation effect
    An "inhibitory potentiality" that opposes the emission of a conditioned response and whose value changes from moment to moment. The values of sOr are normally distributed, and therefore the value that manifests itself at any given moment can be large or small but will most likely be a value that is neither very large nor very small.
  34. partial reinforcement effect
    the fact that a response that has been reinforced only sometimes takes longer to extinguish than a response that had been reinforced each time it occurred.
  35. primary frustration
    The response that occurs when an organism experiences nonreinforcement after it had learned to expect reinforcement.
  36. proprioceptive stimuli
    The stimuli that result from the firing of the kinesthetic receptors in the muscles, joints, and tendons of the body. Also called movement-produced stimuli.
  37. reaction potential
    Directly influences four response measures. As reaction potential goes up, the probability of a learned response being elicited by a stimulus goes up, resistance to extinction goes up, amplitude of a conditioned response goes up, and latency goes down.
  38. reaction threshold
    the minimal value that the momentary effective reaction potential must exceed before a learned response can occur.
  39. reactive inhibition
    the fatigue caused by responding that operates against the emission of a conditioned response.
  40. reinforcement
    According to Guthrie, one of many events that can change a stimulus pattern, thus allowing the association between the previous stimulus pattern and the last response made to it to remain intact. Reinforcement, to Guthrie, was nothing more than a mechanical arrangement that prevents unlearning. According to Hull, drive reduction or drive stimulus reduction.
  41. reinforcer
    Anything that causes either drive reduction or drive stimulus reduction.
  42. reminiscence effect
    The improvement of performance on a skill following a rest after cessation of practice
  43. sign learning
    The kind of learning, in Mowrer's two factor theory, whereby stimuli become signs of fear, hope, relief, or disappointment because of their proximity to various unconditioned stimuli.
  44. solution learning
    the kind of learning, in Mowrer's two-factor theory, whereby an organism learns the behavioral skills necessary to avoid aversive situations and to embrace positive ones.
  45. stimulus generalization
    Stimuli similar to the one used during conditioning also elicit the conditioned response
  46. stimulus-intensity dynamism
    the internal result of varying the magnitude of an external stimulus. a larger external stimulus will result in a larger stimulus trace, thereby increasing the probability that a learned response will be elicited.
  47. stimulus trace
    the afferent (sensory) neural impulse that is caused by an external stimulus and continues for a short while after the external stimulus has ceased.
  48. two-factor theory
    a theory that postulates one set of principles to explain one kind of learning and a different set of principles to explain another kind of learning.
  49. unlearned behavior
    associations between stimuli and responses that are genetically determined and therefore do not depend on experience for their development.
  50. visceral conditioning
    the conditioning of internal organs under the control of the autonomic nervous system, such as the stomach, intestines, heart, bladder, or arteries.
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Ch6- Hull
2013-01-18 05:38:55
Learning Theory

learning theory
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