CHM 105 Exam 1
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CHM 105 Exam 1
Chemistry Test MSU chem
Chemistry 105, test 1
The science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules
anything that occupies space
fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter
one drop of soda pop = about 1 billion trillion atoms (1x10
two or more atoms attached to each other in specific geometrical arrangements
attachments are called bonds
What are the properties of matter determined by?
The atoms and molecules that compose it
substances that have the same properties and composition wherever they're found
some are man-made, some are natural
A way of learning that emphasizes observation and experimentation to understand the world
Components of scientific method?
Observing or measuring some aspect of nature
tentative interpretations of observations
models that explain and give underlying causes for observation and laws
summarize the results of a large number of observations and experimentations
Used to test observations, hypothesis, etc.
The law of conservation of mass
Mass cannot be created or destroyed, although it may be rearranged in space and changed into different types of particles. The mass of reactants must be equal to the mass of the products.
International System of Units
an official system of measurement used throughout the world for units in length, volume, mass, temperature and time
things you can count or defined equalities
12 inches = 1 foot
numbers that come from a device that measures things, like weight, temperature, height
the closeness of the set of values obtained from identical measurements of a quantity
a term related to precision
the closeness of a single measurement to its true value
digits in a measured number (or result of the calculation with a measured number) that include all certain digits plus a final one having some uncertainty
multiplication and division rule
the result of multiplication or division carries the same number of significant figures as the factor with the fewest significant figures
addition and subtraction rule
in addition or subtraction calculations, the result carries the same number of decimal places as the quantity carrying the fewest decimal places
any unit without a prefix
grams, seconds, meters
how many centimeters in an inch?
How many inches in a meter?
How many kilometers in a mile?
1 liter = how many quarts?
(4 cups in a quart)
how many mililiters in a quart?
How many pounds in a kilogram?
how many grams equal a pound?
how many ounces in a pound?
how many pints in a quart?
how many feet in a mile?
a factor obtained from an equality
•compares the mass of an object to its volume
•is the mass of a substance divided by its volume
In what units?
Refers to the closeness of the set of values obtained from identical measurements of a quantity
Refers to the closeness of a single measurement to its true value.
Why is it important to report units with scientific measurements?
So there's no doubt to the meaning of the number
Why are the number of digits reported in scientific notation important?
It reports how well you know a value, or how precisely a value is known
What are the basic SI units of length, mass and time?
List the common units of volume
Why are units important in calculations?
Units provide important information about the answer and must be included for the answer to be correctly understood
Also serve as a guide in the calculation
How are units treated in a calculation?
Exactly the same as numbers - can be multiplied, divided and canceled
What is a conversion factor?
a fraction composed of two equivalent quantities, and is used to convert information from one set of units to another
How do you convert Celsius to Kelvin?
C + 273.15 = K
Define matter, list examples
Anything that occupies space and has mass. Water, steel, wood
What is matter composed of?
(Atoms are bonded together to form molecules)
Three states of matter?
Solid, liquid, gas
Properties of a solid?
fixed volume, definite shape, not compressible
Difference between a crystalline solid and an amorphous solid?
crystalline has atoms formed in a repeating, geometric pattern.
amorphous has atoms that doesn't form repeating patterns
Properties of a liquid?
has a fixed volume, but takes the shape of the container it fills, not compressible
Properties of a gas?
No fixed volume or shape, assumes the shape and volume of the container it fills
Why are gases compressible?
There is a large distance, which can be decreased between gas particles
Solids and liquids can not be compressed because the particles that make them up are touching
What is a mixture?
composed of two or more substances that have been mixed together in variable proportions
Difference between a homogeneous and a heterogeneous mixture?
heterogeneous mixture has two or more distinct regions that have different compositions. A homogeneous mixture has only one region and composition does not change
Examples of homogeneous mixture?
salt water, sweetened tea
Examples of heterogeneous mixtures?
oil and water, salad dressing
What is a pure substance?
composed of only one type of atom or one type of molecule
what is an element? a compound?
an element can't be broken down into two or more simpler substances
a compound is made up of two or more elements in a fixed ratio. it can be broken down.
Difference between a mixture and a compound?
Mixture - two or more substances mixed together but a new substance is not formed
A compound forms a new substance
What's the definition of a physical property? Definition of a chemical property?
A property of a substance that can be determined or observed without changing the chemical composition of a compound is called a physical property.
A property in which the chemical composition of a substance is altered is called a chemical property.
Difference between a physical and chemical change?
Physical change doesn't alter the chemical condition of a compound. A chemical change does.
Law of conservation of mass?
Mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction
capacity to do work or generate heat
Difference between kinetic and potential energy?
Kinetic is energy in motion. Potential energy is stored energy (stored in bonds)
Units of energy?
Chemical energy? Common substances that contain chemical energy?
A form of potential energy associated with the position of particles that compose the chemical system.
: the burning of gasoline or burning of natural gas that can move objects or provide heat
Very reactive metals
Alkaline earth metals
fairly reactive, not as reactive as alklali metals
tend to be +2
very reactive nonmetals
like to be -1
Most stable (tend to keep their electrons)
Main ideas in Dalton's atomic theory?
Matter is ultimately composed of tiny particles called atoms
Atoms are commonly found bonded to other atoms to form larger particles called molecules