CHM 105 Exam 1

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jenmuz
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CHM 105 Exam 1
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2013-02-03 13:46:44
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Chemistry Test MSU chem
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Chemistry 105, test 1
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  1. Chemistry
    The science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules
  2. Matter
    anything that occupies space
  3. Atoms
    • submicroscopic particles
    • fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter
    • one drop of soda pop = about 1 billion trillion atoms (1x109x1012)
  4. Molecules
    • two or more atoms attached to each other in specific geometrical arrangements
    • attachments are called bonds
  5. What are the properties of matter determined by?
    The atoms and molecules that compose it
  6. chemicals
    • substances that have the same properties and composition wherever they're found
    • some are man-made, some are natural
  7. Scientific method
    A way of learning that emphasizes observation and experimentation to understand the world
  8. Components of scientific method?
    • Observations
    • Hypothesis
    • Theories
    • Laws
    • Experiments
  9. Observation
    Observing or measuring some aspect of nature
  10. Hypothesis
    tentative interpretations of observations
  11. Theories
    models that explain and give underlying causes for observation and laws
  12. Laws
    summarize the results of a large number of observations and experimentations
  13. Experiments
    Used to test observations, hypothesis, etc.
  14. The law of conservation of mass
    Mass cannot be created or destroyed, although it may be rearranged in space and changed into different types of particles. The mass of reactants must be equal to the mass of the products.
  15. International System of Units
    an official system of measurement used throughout the world for units in length, volume, mass, temperature and time
  16. exact numbers
    • things you can count or defined equalities
    • 12 inches = 1 foot
  17. Measured numbers
    numbers that come from a device that measures things, like weight, temperature, height
  18. Precision
    the closeness of the set of values obtained from identical measurements of a quantity
  19. accuracy
    • a term related to precision
    • the closeness of a single measurement to its true value
  20. significant figures
    digits in a measured number (or result of the calculation with a measured number) that include all certain digits plus a final one having some uncertainty
  21. multiplication and division rule
    the result of multiplication or division carries the same number of significant figures as the factor with the fewest significant figures
  22. addition and subtraction rule
    in addition or subtraction calculations, the result carries the same number of decimal places as the quantity carrying the fewest decimal places
  23. Giga
    • G
    • 1,000,000,000
    • 1x109
  24. Mega
    • M
    • 1,000,000
    • 1x106
  25. Kilo
    • k
    • 1,000
    • 1x103
  26. deci
    • d
    • 0.1
    • 1x10-1
  27. centi
    • c
    • 0.01
    • 1x10-2
  28. milli
    • m
    • .001
    • 1x10-3
  29. micro
    • μ
    • 1x10-6
    • .0000001
  30. nano
    • n
    • .000000001
    • 1x10-9
  31. base unit
    • any unit without a prefix
    • grams, seconds, meters
  32. how many centimeters in an inch?
    2.54cm
  33. How many inches in a meter?
    39.37 inches
  34. How many kilometers in a mile?
    0.6214mi
  35. 1 liter = how many quarts?
    • 1.057 qt
    • (4 cups in a quart)
  36. how many mililiters in a quart?
    946.4mL
  37. How many pounds in a kilogram?
    2.205 lb
  38. how many grams equal a pound?
    453.6g
  39. how many ounces in a pound?
    16 oz
  40. how many pints in a quart?
    2
  41. how many feet in a mile?
    5280 ft
  42. conversion factor
    a factor obtained from an equality
  43. Density
    • •compares the mass of an object to its volume
    • •is the mass of a substance divided by its volume
  44. D=M/V
    In what units?
    • g/mL
    • g/cm3
    • g/cc
  45. Precision
    Refers to the closeness of the set of values obtained from identical measurements of a quantity
  46. Accuracy
    Refers to the closeness of a single measurement to its true value.
  47. Why is it important to report units with scientific measurements?
    So there's no doubt to the meaning of the number
  48. Why are the number of digits reported in scientific notation important?
    It reports how well you know a value, or how precisely a value is known
  49. What are the basic SI units of length, mass and time?
    • Meters (m)
    • Kilograms (Kg)
    • Seconds (s)
  50. List the common units of volume
    • m3
    • cm3
    • L
    • mL
  51. Why areĀ units important in calculations?
    • Units provide important information about the answer and must be included for the answer to be correctly understood
    • Also serve as a guide in the calculation
  52. How are units treated in a calculation?
    Exactly the same as numbers - can be multiplied, divided and canceled
  53. What is a conversion factor?
    a fraction composed of two equivalent quantities, and is used to convert information from one set of units to another
  54. How do you convert Celsius to Kelvin?
    C + 273.15 = K
  55. Define matter, list examples
    Anything that occupies space and has mass. Water, steel, wood
  56. What is matter composed of?
    • Atoms
    • (Atoms are bonded together to form molecules)
  57. Three states of matter?
    Solid, liquid, gas
  58. Properties of a solid?
    fixed volume, definite shape, not compressible
  59. Difference between a crystalline solid and an amorphous solid?
    • crystalline has atoms formed in a repeating, geometric pattern.
    • amorphous has atoms that doesn't form repeating patterns
  60. Properties of a liquid?
    has a fixed volume, but takes the shape of the container it fills, not compressible
  61. Properties of a gas?
    No fixed volume or shape, assumes the shape and volumeĀ of the container it fills
  62. Why are gases compressible?
    • There is a large distance, which can be decreased between gas particles
    • Solids and liquids can not be compressed because the particles that make them up are touching
  63. What is a mixture?
    composed of two or more substances that have been mixed together in variable proportions
  64. Difference between a homogeneous and a heterogeneous mixture?
    heterogeneous mixture has two or more distinct regions that have different compositions. A homogeneous mixture has only one region and composition does not change
  65. Examples of homogeneous mixture?
    salt water, sweetened tea
  66. Examples of heterogeneous mixtures?
    oil and water, salad dressing
  67. What is a pure substance?
    composed of only one type of atom or one type of molecule
  68. what is an element? a compound?
    • an element can't be broken down into two or more simpler substances
    • a compound is made up of two or more elements in a fixed ratio. it can be broken down.
  69. Difference between a mixture and a compound?
    • Mixture - two or more substances mixed together but a new substance is not formed
    • A compound forms a new substance
  70. What's the definition of a physical property? Definition of a chemical property?
    • A property of a substance that can be determined or observed without changing the chemical composition of a compound is called a physical property.
    • A property in which the chemical composition of a substance is altered is called a chemical property.
  71. Difference between a physical and chemical change?
    Physical change doesn't alter the chemical condition of a compound. A chemical change does.
  72. Law of conservation of mass?
    Mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction
  73. Define energy
    capacity to do work or generate heat
  74. Difference between kinetic and potential energy?
    Kinetic is energy in motion. Potential energy is stored energy (stored in bonds)
  75. Units of energy?
    • Joule (J)
    • calorie
    • Calorie
    • kilowatt/hour kWh
  76. Chemical energy? Common substances that contain chemical energy?
    • A form of potential energy associated with the position of particles that compose the chemical system.
    • Ex: the burning of gasoline or burning of natural gas that can move objects or provide heat
  77. Alkali metals
    • Very reactive metals
    • Group 1A
    • +1
  78. Alkaline earth metals
    • Group 2A
    • fairly reactive, not as reactive as alklali metals
    • tend to be +2
  79. Halogens
    • very reactive nonmetals
    • group 7A
    • like to be -1
  80. Noble gases
    • Group 8A
    • Most stable (tend to keep their electrons)
  81. Main ideas in Dalton's atomic theory?
    • Matter is ultimately composed of tiny particles called atoms
    • Atoms are commonly found bonded to other atoms to form larger particles called molecules

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