biology 201

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Anonymous
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193594
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biology 201
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2013-01-18 13:11:37
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biology 201
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biology 201
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  1. define open label experiment
    subjects know what treatment they're getting
  2. define blind and double blind experiment
    blind: subjects DO NOT know which treatment they're getting

    double blind: neither the subjects nor the scientists know who gets the treatment
  3. to be a proper experiment, it must be these two things:
    • 1. repeatable
    • 2. reproduceable
  4. differentiate hypothesis and theory
    hypothesis: a prediction

    theory: pretty much proven
  5. differentiate dependent and independent variable
    dependent: measured result (eg. cold symptoms, grade)

    independent: the factor being changed (medication or not)
  6. define atoms
    the basic unit of matter (cannot be broken down by chemical methods)
  7. define cells
    the smallest unit of LIFE (created by different MOLECULES, which are made by combining ATOMS)
  8. what 3 subatomic particles are atoms made from?
    • 1. proton (positive) center
    • 2. neutron (neutral) center

    3. electron (negative) shell
  9. what is the atomic number
    the number of PROTONS in the nucleus (normally same as the number of ELECTRONS)
  10. define RADIOACTIVE atoms
    unstable atoms that release high energy when they spontaneously break down
  11. what are the FOUR MAIN ELEMENTS in the body
    • 1. oxygen (65%)
    • 2. carbon (18.5%)
    • 3. hydrogen (9.5%)
    • 4. nitrogen (3%)
  12. define an isotope
    an isotope has a DIFFERENT number of PROTONS and NEUTRONS (most atoms have an equal number).
  13. name the mass and proton, neutron numbers of the following elements:

    1. hydrogen
    2. carbon
    3. nitrogen
    4. oxygen
    • hydrogen (mass 1)
    • 1 proton
    • 0 neutron
    • 1 electron

    • carbon (mass 12)
    • 6 protons
    • 6 neutrons
    • 6 electrons

    • nitrogen (mass 14)
    • 7 proton
    • 7 neutron
    • 7 electron

    • oxygen (mass 16)
    • 8 proton
    • 8 neutron
    • 8 electron
  14. what determines how and whether the atom will bond with other atoms?
    electrons
  15. what is the maximum capacity of the 1st and 2nd electron shell?
    • 1st shell: 2 electrons
    • 2nd shell: 8 electrons
  16. name the three types of bonds, strongest to weakest
    1. covalent bond (polar and non-polar)

    2. ionic bond (weaker)

    3. hydrogen bonds (weakest)
  17. what determines the type of bond that an atom will have?
    whether or not the outer shell is full
  18. define a covalent bond
    when atoms SHARE electrons
  19. define polar and non polar bonds
    non polar: the sharing of electrons is equal

    polar: unequal sharing of electrons (slightly more at one end than another, causing slight positive and slight negative charge)
  20. define ionic bond
    when one atom gives its electron to another type of atom to render both stable (eg. salt) and positive or negative
  21. define hydrogen bonds
    when slightly negative ends of one atom become attracted to the slightly positive ends of another adjacent molecule

    (weak attraction)
  22. define the makeup of WATER
    two hydrogen, one oxygen

    POLAR COVALENT bond: unequal sharing

    (water molecules are held by HYDROGEN bonds)
  23. name and define the four unusual properties of water
    1. cohesion (hydrogen bonds make the water cohesive, or sticky)

    2. high heat capacity (hydrogen bonding allows the water to quickly re-bond after being broken by heat, causing it to heat up slowly)

    3. low density as a solid (water is less dense when it freezes- it expands)

    4. good solvent (water's negative ends are attracted to POLAR MOLECULES and IONS (hydrophilic)

    * water REPELS non-polar molecules (eg. oil) because they self-interact to exclude water

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