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  1. By end of 16th century, Europe experienced decline in __ and __ that affected both __ and __. __weakened through __ in 17th century. People wanted __. There was an extension of monarchical power (absolute monarchy)__. Other states had monarchs limited by __. 
    • religious passions
    • growing secularization
    • political and intellectual worlds
    • Christianity
    • religious wars
    • order
    • order
    • representative assemblies
  2. Social Crises, War, and Rebellions: __-fueled prosperity showed signs of slackening by beginning of 17th century. Economic contraction evident from decline in __, __, and __, and __. Population in the 16th century expanded from__ and __, leveled off by __, and declined by __. Only the __, __, and __ grew in first half of 17th century. __, __, and __ affected the population. Another little __ affected harvests and caused famines, creating social tensions in the __. 
    • Inflation
    • silver imports
    • intensifying economic recessions
    • Italy (economic backwater)
    • Spain’s failing economy
    •  warmer climate and increased food
    • 1620
    • 1650
    • Dutch, English and French
    • War, famine, and plague
    • ice age
    • witchcraft craze
  3. I.                   The Witchcraft Craze

    • a.      Hysteria over witchcraft (16-17th) in England, Scotland, Switzerland, Germany, France and Low Countries, New Englandà trials
    • b.      Not new; traditional village culture, but viewed as sinister and dangerous when medieval church connected them with devil= heresy, need to abolish
    •                                                               i.      After Inquisition (13th), people accused of practicing it and burned at stake, turned in, or hung 
  4. I.                   The Witchcraft Craze
    • a.      Increased number of trials and executions of presumed witches
    •                                                               i.      Trialà fear of them and being accused of it
    • 1.      Trials spread to smaller towns and rural areas
    •                                                             ii.      Accused witches confessed to practices after torture
  5. I.                   The Witchcraft Craze
    • 1.      Practices
    • a.      Admitting to swearing allegiance to the devil and attending sabbats or nocturnal gatherings where they feasted, danced, and copulated with the devil in sexual orgies
    • b.      Admissions of using evil incantations and special ointments and powders to wreak havoc on neighbors by killing livestock, injuring kids, or raising storms to destroy crops
  6. I.                   The Witchcraft Craze
    Theories for widespread frenzy
    •                                                               i.      Religious uncertainties
    •                                                             ii.      Social condition and society of turmoil
    •                                                           iii.      Women as chief victims of witchcraft
  7. I.                   The Witchcraft Craze
    Theories:                                                               i.      Religious uncertainties
    • 1.      Trials usually in Protestant regions or Protestant-Catholic controversial areas
    • a.      Religious passions increasedà increase in accusations of work with devil
  8. I.                   The Witchcraft Craze
    Theories: Social Condition and Society of Turmoil
    • 1.      Old communal values (work together for good of community) declined before new economic view of self-importance
    • a.      Property owners feared number of poor and transformed them psychologically into devil’s advocates, especially old women
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Many were no longer recipients of local charity of society and resorted to selling herbs, potions, and secret remedies for healing to survive
    • 1.      Problems led to using them as scapegoats
  9. I.                   The Witchcraft Craze
    • 1.      Nicholas Remy, a witchcraft judge in France, accused witches coming from female sex
    • 2.      Another judge= not surprised they were sexually involved with Satan
    • 3.      Theologians, lawyers, and philosophers= women inferior and susceptible to witchcraft
  10. I.                   The Witchcraft Craze
    • 1.      Mid-17th century
    • 2.      Destruction from religious wars= acceptance of grudging toleration, tempering religious passions
    • 3.      Governments stabilization after crisis= fewer magistrates willing to accept unsettling and divisive conditions from trials
    • 4.      18th: educated people questioned attitudes toward religion and didn’t believe world of evil spirits
Card Set:
2013-01-18 20:47:28
HON 122

State Building and the Search for Order in the 17th Century
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