15.1.2

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DesLee26
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193620
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15.1.2
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2013-01-18 15:58:07
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HON 122
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State Building and the Search for Order in the 17th Century
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  1. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    First 50 years and Background
    • a.      First 50 years of 17th= crises
    • b.      Background
    •                                                               i.      Religion (Catholicism v. militant Calvinism) contributed to outbreak
    •                                                             ii.      Secular, dynastic-nationalist considerations more important
    •                                                           iii.      Most fighting in Germanic lands of Holy Roman Empire, but still Europe-wide struggle
    • 1.      Viewed as part of larger conflict for European leadership between Bourbon dynasty of France and Habsburg dynasties of Spain and Holy Roman Empire (1609-1659)
  2. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Peace of Augsburg
    •                                                               i.      Peace of Augsburg (1555) ended religious warfare between German Catholics and Lutherans
    • 1.      Religion still divided German Life between Lutherans and Catholics
    • 2.      Treaty didn’t recognize rights of Calvinists, leading German states to adopt it as their state church
  3. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Elector Palatine Frederick IV
    • 1.      17th century: Calvinist ruler of Palatinate, the Elector Palatine Frederick IV, formed league of German Protestant states= Protestant Union (he was leader)
    • a.      As a result, Catholic League of German states organized by Duke Maximilian of s. German Bavaria
    • Germany (1609) divided
  4. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Religious Division worsened
    • 1.      Religious division worsened by constitutional issue
    • a.      Desire of Habsburg emperors to consolidate their authority in Holy Roman Empire resisted by princes, who fought for “German liberties,” which were constitutional rights and prerogatives as individual rulers
    • b.      To pursue policies, the emperors asked help from Spain while princes asked their enemy, France, for help
  5. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Four Phases: First
    • 1.      Began in one of Habsburgs’ territories
    • 2.      1617: Bohemian Estates accepted Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand as their king but unhappy with choice
    • a.      Ferdinand Catholicà re-Catholicized Bohemia and strengthened royal power
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Protestant nobles rebelled (May 1618) and resisted by throwing two Habsburg governors and a secretary out of window of castle in Prague (seat of Bohemian government)
    • 1.      Catholic side claimed their survival was due to Virgin Mary
    • 2.      Protestants said it was the manure pile
  6. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Four Phases First: Rebels
    • 1.      Rebels seized control of Bohemia, deposed Ferdinand, and elected Protestant ruler of the Palatinate, Elector Frederick V, as replacement
    • a.      He was also head of Protestant Union
  7. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Four Phases First: Ferdinand and Deposition
    • a.      Ferdinand elected Holy Roman Emperor refused deposition
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Realized election of Fred would upset religious and political power in c. Europe and give Protestants greater control of Holy Roman Empire, and sought aid from Duke Maximilian of Bavaria and Catholic League
    • 1.      With them, he defeated Frederick and Bohemian nobles at Battle of White Mountain on Nov. 8, 1620
  8. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Four Phases:
    First Phase: Spanish Took Advantage
    • a.      Spanish troops took advantage of Frederick’s predicament by invading and conquering the Palatinate by end of 1622
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Fred fled into exile in United Provinces
  9. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Four Phases: First Phase: Control
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Spanish controlled western part of Palatinate for access route from Italy to the Netherlands
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Maximilian took rest of territory
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                           iii.      As king again, Fred declared Bohemia a hereditary Habsburg possession, confiscated Protestant noble lands, and made Catholicism the sole religion
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                           iv.      Spanish renewed attack on Dutch 
  10. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Four Phases: Second
    •                                                               i.      The Danish Phase
    • 1.      Began when King Christian IV of Denmark, a Lutheran, intervened on behalf of the Protestant cause by leading army into northern Germany
    • a.      He made an anti-Habsburg and anti-Catholic alliance with the United Provinces and England and wanted possession of Catholic territories in n. Germany to benefit his family
  11. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Four Phases: Second Phase: New Commander
    • a.      Meanwhile, Ferdinand gained new commander for imperial forces= Albrecht von Wallenstein
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Bohemian nobleman who took advantage of Ferdinand’s victory to become wealthiest landowner
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      His forces defeated protestant army at Dessau and continued to operate in northern Germany
    • 1.      Christian IV’s forces, despite aid from allies, were defeated (1626) by an army of the Catholic League under Count Tilly and suffered loss to Wallenstein’s forces the following year
  12. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Four Phases: Second Phase: Wallenstein
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Wallenstein occupied n. Germany, Baltic ports of Hamburg, Lubeck, and Bremen
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Christian’s defeat= end of Danish supremacy in Baltic
  13. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Four Phases: Second PHase: Edict of Restitution
    • 1.      After success of imperial armies, Ferdinand II issued Edict of Restitution in March 1629
    • a.      Prohibited Calvinist worship and restored Catholic Church’s property that was taken by Protestant princes or cities during past 75 years
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      This sudden growth in power of Habsburg emperor frightened German prices, who feared for their independent status and reacted by forcing the emperor to dismiss Wallenstein
  14. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Four Phases: Third Phase
    • 1.      Marked entry of Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, into the war
    • a.      Responsible for reviving Sweden and transforming it into great Baltic power
    • b.      Brought disciplined and well-equipped Swedish army to n. Germany
    • c.       Devout Lutheran who wanted to help his coreligionists in Germany
  15. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Four Phases: Second Phase: Adolphus Armpy
    • 1.      His army swept imperial forces out of north and moved into Germany’s heart
    • a.      Imperial side recalled Wallenstein= command of imperial army that met Gustavus’ troops near Leipzig
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Battle of Lutzen (1632): Swedes prevailed but paid for victory when Swedish king killed in battle
    • 1.      Less effective
  16. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Four Phase: Third Phase: Loss of Wallenstein
    • 1.      Loss of Wallenstein, assassinated in 1634 on orders of Ferdinand, led imperial army to defeat Swedes at Battle of Nordlingen (1634) and drive them out of s. Germany
    • a.      Victory guaranteed s. Germany Catholic
  17. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Four Phases: Third Phase: Make Peace
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Emperor used this to make peace with German princes and annul the Edict of Restitution on 1629
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Peace failed to come as Swedes wanted to continue and French, under Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister of King Louis XIII, entered war directlyà Franco-Swedish phase
  18. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Four Phases: Fourth Phase
    • 1.      Religious issues losing importance
    • a.      Catholic French supported Protestant Swedes against Catholic Habsburgs of Germany and Spain
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Battle of Rocroi= French beat Spanish and ended their military greatness
  19. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Four Phases: Victories
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Victories over imperialist-Bavarian armies in s. Germany
    • 1.      All parties wanted peace
    • a.      After 5 years of negotiating, war ended with Peace of Westphalia (1648)
    • b.      War between France and Spain continued until Peace of the Pyrenees in 1659
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Spain, at this time, was a second-class power/ France dominant
  20. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Outcome
    •                                                               i.      Peace of Westphalia ensured all German states, including Calvinish ones, were free to determine their own religion
    • 1.      France gained parts of western Germany, part of Alsace, and three cities of Metz, Toul , and Verdun, giving French control of the Franco-German border area
    • 2.      Sweden and German states of Brandenburg and Bavaria gained some territory in Germany, but Austrian Habsburgs didn’t lose any but saw their authority as rulers of Germany diminished
  21. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Outcome: Peace cont. 
    • 1.      Over three hundred states of Holy Roman Empire= virtually independent, since each received own power to conduct own foreign policy
    • 2.      Habsburg emperor= figurehead in Holy Roman Empire
  22. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Outcome: Peace cont. 
    • 1.      Religion and politics are separate
    • a.      Pope ignored in all decisions at Westphalia and political motives became guiding forces in public affairs as religion moved closer to becoming primarily a matter of personal conviction and individual choice
    • 2.      Beginning of modern international order in which sovereign states began to operate as equals within secular framework
  23. I.                   The Thirty Years’ War (Last of the Religious Wars)
    Economic and Social Effects
    •                                                               i.      Economic and social effects
    • 1.      Some German areas= devastated; others untouched and grew
    • Most destructive conflict Europe had experienced

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