Part I Human Cell for quiz 1

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nickster159
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193621
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Part I Human Cell for quiz 1
Updated:
2013-01-18 21:30:02
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Human cells Rad protection
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rad protection flash cards about the human cell for quiz 1
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  1. What are the three main parts of the cell?
    The cell membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus
  2. What does the cell membrane do?
    Protects the cell; holds in water and nucleus; and allows water, nutrients and waste products to pass into and out of the cell (it is semipermeable)-selectively allows various things to pass into or out of cell
  3. What is the cytoplasm primarily composed of?
    Water, H2O
  4. What is the cytoplasm involved in?
    Conducts all cellular metabolism; contains organelles; takes unrefined material and builds or assemble new substances. (Anabolism-assembly of larger molecules from smaller ones); produces energy by breaking down organic matter (Catabolism); packages matter for distribution to other areas; eliminates waste
  5. What are the different organelles within the cytoplasm?
    Centrosomes/centrioles; ribosomes; lysosomes; mitochondria; golgi apparatus; and endoplasmic reticulum
  6. What is the function of centrosomes/centrioles?
    participates in cell division
  7. What is the function of ribosomes?
    synthesize protein
  8. What is the function of lysosomes?
    contains enzymes for intracellular digestive process
  9. What is the function of the mitochondria?
    produces energy
  10. What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
    combines proteins with carbohydrates
  11. What is the function of the Endoplasmic reticulum?
    Acts as a transportation system to move food and molecules within the cell. Smooth and rough
  12. What is anabolism?
    Assembly of larger molecules from smaller ones. Makes big things out of little things. (building up)
  13. What is catabolism?
    process of breaking down matter
  14. What does the nucleus contain?
    Contains DNA and RNA.
  15. What does DNA control?
    It controls cell division and controls all cellular functions
  16. What are the two types of RNA?
    Messenger RNA (mRNA) and Transfer RNA (tRNA)
  17. What is the function of messenger RNA (mRNA)?
    It is able to leave the nucleus and directs cell activity
  18. What is the function of transfer RNA (tRNA)?
    It does the work as directed by mRNA to create proteins
  19. What is DNA made of?
    Adenine (A), Cystosine (C), Guanine (G), and Thymine (T)
  20. What other components does the cell consist of?
    Proteins; Carbohydrates; Lipids; Nucleic Acids; Water; Acids, bases, salts (electrolytes)
  21. What do proteins do?
    Takes 22 amino acids to create a proteins and the arrangement of the amino acids decide its function.
  22. What are the different proteins?
    Enzymes, Hormones, and Antibodies
  23. What percentage of the cell is proteins?
    15%
  24. What is the function of an enzyme?
    Effect cell function and repair damage
  25. What is the function of hormones?
    Regulate growth and development
  26. What is the function of an antibody?
    Fights infection and foreign invaders
  27. What percentage of a cell are carbohydrates?
    1%
  28. What are carbohydrates?
    Starches and sugars. It is short-term energy for cell and body
  29. What percentage of the cell are lipids?
    2%
  30. What are lipids?
    Fat, long-term energy for cell and body, insulation, support and protection for body and lubrication for joints
  31. What percent of the cell are nucleic acids?
    1%
  32. What percent of the cell is water?
    80%
  33. What percent of the cell are acids, bases, and salts (electrolytes)?
    1%
  34. What are acids, bases, salts (electrolytes)?
    • Mineral salts, mainly sodium (Na) and Potassium (K).
    • Cations = positive ion-Potassium (K) (loses an electron)
    • Anion = negative ion-Phosphorus (P) (add or gained an electron)
  35. What is a cation?
    A positive ion. Potassium (K). Loses an electron.
  36. What is an anion?
    A negative ion. Phosphorus (P). Add or gain an electron.

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