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2013-01-18 17:05:25
HON 122

State Building and the Search for Order in the 17th Century
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  1. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    • a.      Louis’ mother doubted him, but Louis wanted to prove he was a strong ruler
    •                                                               i.      Established conscientious routine
    •                                                             ii.      Creted a grand and majestic spectacle at the court of Versailles
    • 1.      Lousi and his court set standard for monarchies and aristocracies all over Euroope
    • a.      1661-1715: Age of Louis XIV
  2. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    •                                                               i.      Believed in absolutism and fostered myth of self as Sun King, the source of light for all his people
    • 1.      Still, France had overlapping authorities
    • a.      Provinces= own courts, own local Estates, own set of laws
    • b.      Members of high nobility exercised authority
    • c.       Towns and provinces possessed privileges and powers that they wuldn’t give up
  3. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    •                                                               i.      Able to restructure the central policy-making machinery of government because it was part of his own court and household
    • 1.      Royal court at Versailles served different purposes
    • a.      Personal household of the king
    • b.      Location of central government machinery
    • c.       Place where powerful subjects came to find favors and offices for themselves and their clinets as well as the main arena where rival aristocratic factions jostled for power
  4. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Damgers tp :pios
    •                                                               i.      Nobles and princes of the blood were dangers to Louis, who considered it their natural function to assert the policy-making role of royal ministers
    • 1.      Louis eliminated this by removing them from the royal council, chief administrative body of the king and overseer of the central machinery of government, and enticing them to his court, where he could keep them preoccupied with court life and out of politics
    • a.      Relied for ministers on other nobles; ministers to be subservient
  5. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
                                                                  i.      Domination of his ministers and secretaries= control of central policy-making machinery of government and authority over traditional areas of monarchical power: formulation of foreign policy, the making of war and peace, the assertion of the secular power of the crown against any religious authority, and the ability to levy taxes to fulfill these functions
  6. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Less success
    •                                                               i.      Less success with internal administration of kingdom
    • 1.      Traditional groups and institutions of French society—nobles, officials, town councils, guilds, and representative Estates in some provinces—too powerful for king to have direct control over lives of subjects
  7. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Control of Provinces and People
    • a.      Control of provinces and people achieved through bribing people responsible for executing the king’s policies
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Local officials could still obstruct the execution of policies they disliked, showing it wasn’t absolute
    • 1.      Louis’ relationship with the parlements shows he was able to exercise both political and economic control over these provincial law courts, which were responsible for registering new laws sent to them by the king
  8. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Religious Policy
    •                                                               i.      Maintenance of religious harmony= monarchical power
    • 1.      Desire to keep ità Louis v. French Huguenots
    • a.      Louis didn’t want to allow Protesntats to practice faith in Catholic France
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Felt existence of Protestantism undermined his authority 
  9. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Edict of Fontainebleau
    • 1.      Oct 1685: Edict of Fontainebleau
    • a.      Revoked Edict of Nantes
    • b.      Provided for the destruction of Huguenot churches and closing of Protestant schools
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      200,000 Huguenots defied prohibition against their leaving France and sought asylum in England, united Provinces, and German states
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Iinflux of English and Iirish political and religious refugees into France offset loss o people
  10. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Support for expulsion
    a.      Support for expulsion of Protestants from Catholic laypeople (rejected Protestant lelgal rights, banned them from government meetings, and destroyed their churches to regain Catholic control of their regions)
  11. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Financial Issues
    •                                                               i.      Cost of building Versailles and other plances, maintaining his court, and pursuing his wars= finance issue
    • 1.      Service of Jean-Baptiste Colbert controlled finances and tried to increase wealth and power of France through mercantilism, which stressed government regulation of economic activities to benefit the state
  12. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Financial Issues: Colbert
    • a.      To decrease need for imports and increase exports, Colbert tried to expand the quantity and improve the quality of French manufactured goods
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Founded new luxury industries, like the royal tapersty works of Beauvais
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Invited Venetian glassmakers and Flemish clothmakers to France
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Drew up instructions regulating the quality of gods produced
    •                                                                                                                                   iv.      Oversaw training of workers
    •                                                                                                                                     v.      Granted special privileges, like tax exemptions, loans, and subsidies, to individuals who established new industries
    •                                                                                                                                   vi.      To improve communications and the transportation of goods internally, he built roads and canals
    •                                                                                                                                 vii.      To decrease imports directily, he raised tariffs on foreign manufactured goods, especially English and Dutch cloth, and created a merchant marine to facilitate the conveyance of French goods
  13. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Financial Issues
    Mercantilistic Policies
    • a.      Mercantilistic policies questioned in terms of usefulness
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Regulations often evaded
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Imposition of high tariffs brought foreign retaliation
    • 1.      French trade entered too late to compete with English and Dutc
    • 2.      His economic policies, geared to increase king’s pwer, were failures
    • a.      The more revenue for king to war, the faster Louis depleted the treasury
    • b.      Taxes heavy on peasants
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Still, his practices allowed for greater economic growth
  14. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Daily Life 
    • a.      Daily Life at the Court of Versailles
    •                                                               i.      Set standard for other rulers
    • 1.      1660: Louis decided to convert a hunting lodge at Versailles, not ar from Paris, into a chateau
    • a.      1668:: completed/ lots of money
  15. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    •                                                               i.      Purposes
    • 1.      Residence of king, reception hall for state affairs, office building for members of king’s government, home of thousands of royal officials and aristocratic courtiers
    • 2.      Symbol of French absolutist state and power of Sun King, Louis XIV
    • 3.      Intended to overawe subjects and impress foreign powers
    • 4.      Home to high nobility and princes of the blood,  the royal pricnes who aspired to hold policy-making role of royal minsters
    • a.      By keeping them involved, he excluded them from real power while allowing them to share in mystique of power as companions of the king
  16. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    • 1.      Court ceremony with Lou at center
    • a.      Little privacy except visits to wife, mom, or women
    • b.      Ceremonies carefully staged and assisted by nobles, which was a great honor
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      This involvement was a prerequisite for obtaining the offices, titles and pensions that only he could grant
  17. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Policy reduced...
    • 1.      Policy reduced great nobles and ecclesiastics, the “people of quality” to a plane of equality, allowing Louis to exercise control over them and prevent them from interfering in the real power
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      To maintain their social prestige, the people of quality were to adhere to rigid standards of court etiquette appropriate to their rank
  18. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    1.      Nobles and princes in order of seniority expected to follow certain precendence rules
  19. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    • 1.      Walks through gardens, boating trips, tragedies, comedies, ballets, concerts
    • 2.      Appartement by Louis, where he was “at home” to his court
    • a.      Formal informality
    • b.      Relaxed rules of etiquette allowed people to sit down in presence of superiors
    • c.       Concertà billiards and cardsà buffet
  20. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    •                                                               i.      Increase in royal power that Louis pursued and desire for military gloryà war
    •                                                             ii.      Secretary of War, Francois-Michel Le Tellier, the marquis of Louvois, developed a professional army numbering 100,000 men in peacetime and 400,000 in war
    • 1.      War was frequent
    • 2.      To achieve the prestige and military glory befitting the Sun King as well as to ensure the domination of his Bourbon dynasty over European affairs, Louis waged four wars between 1667 and 1713
  21. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    First War
    • a.      1667: first war
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Invaded Spanish Netherlands and Frahcne-Comte
    • 1.      Triple Alliance of Dutch, English, and Swedes forced Louis to sue for peace in 68 and accept a few towns in the Spanish Netherlands for his efforts
  22. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Never forgave
    • a.      Never forgave Dutch for arranging the Triple Alliance, and in 1672, he invaded United Provinces witho some success
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      French victoriesà Brandenburg, Spain, and Holy Roman Empire formed a new coalition that forced Louis to end Dutch War by making peace at Nimwegen
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      While Dutch territory remained intact, France received Franche- Comte from Spain, which served merely to stimulate Louis’ appetite for even more land
  23. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Louis vs. Holy Roman Empire
    • a.      Then, Louis moved eastward against the Holy Roman Emprie, which he thought was feeble and unable to resist
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Gradual annexation of the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine followed by occupation of city of Strasbourg, a move that led to protest and formation of a new coalitionà League of Augsburg
    • 1.      Consisted of Spain, Holy Roman Emprie, United Provinces, Sweden, and England
  24. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Third War
    • a.      This led to Louis third war, The War of the League of Augsburg
    • 1.      8 year struggleà economic depression and famine to France
    • a.      Traeaty of Ryswick ended it and forced Louis to give up most of his conquests in the empire, although he was allowed to keep Strasbourg and part of Alsace
  25. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Fourth War
    • a.      Fourth War, the War of the Spanish Succession, was over the succession to the Spanish throne
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Charles II was sick and childless and left the throne of Spain to grandson of Louis XIV
    • 1.      When latter became King Philip V of Spain after Charles’s death, idea of united Spain and France in same dynastic family caused formation of new coalition, determined to prevent Bourbon hegemony that would destroy European power balance
  26. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Coalition of England
    • a.      This coalition of England, the United Provinces, Habsburg Austria, and German states opposed France and Spainin an 11 year war
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      In many battles, including the defeat of French at Blenheim in 1704 by allied troops led by English commander, John Churchill, duke of Marlborough, the coalition wore down Louis’ forces
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      End of war: Peace of Utrecht in 1713 and of Rastatt in 1714
  27. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    The Treaties
    • 1.      Although they confirmed Philip V as the Spanish ruler, initiating a Spanish Bourbon dynasty that would last into the 20th century, they affirmed that Spanish and French thrones to be separated
    • a.      Spanish Netherlands, Milan, and Naples given to Austria, and emerging state of Brandenburg-Prussia gained additional territories
  28. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Real Winner
    • 1.      Real winner at Utrecht was England
    • a.      Received Gibraltar and French possessions in America of Newfoundland, Hudson Bay Territory, and Nova Scotia
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Although France was a great pwer, England had emerged as a formidable naval force
  29. I.                   The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    Two Years Aafter Treaty
    •                                                               i.      Two years after treaty, the Sun King was dead, leaving France in debt and surrounded by enemies
    • 1.      Told successor not to model him
    • a.      Great-grandson only five years old