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2013-01-18 17:56:54
HON 122

State Building and the Search for Order in the 17th Century
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  1. Absolutism in Central, Eastern, and Northern Europe: Three new powers in __, __, and __
    Prussia, Austria, and Russia
  2. I.                   The German States
    Peace of Westphalia
    • a.      Peace of Westphalia ended Thirty Years War in 1648 and left each state in Holy Roman Empire autonomous and sovereignà many little Germanies
    •                                                               i.      Brandenburg-Prussia
    • 1.      Evolution of Brandenburg into powerful state due to Hohenzollern dynasty, wichi ruled it in 1415
    • a.      1609: Hohenzollerns inherited lands in Rhine valley; 9 years later, received Prussiaà Brandenburg-Prussia
  3. I.                   The German States
    Three masses
    • 1.      Three disconnected masses in w., c. and e. Germany; only the Hohenzollern ruler connected them
    • 2.      Foundation
    • a.      Laid by Frederick Willian the Great Elector, who came to power in midst of Thirty Years War
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Built competent and efficient standing army
    • 1.      1678: 40,000 men taking 50% of state’s revenue
  4. I.                   The German States
    General War Commissariat
    • a.      General War Commissariat (Will did this) to levy taxes for army and oversee growth and graining
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Evolved into agency for civil government too and instrument for governing
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Many of its officials wre members of Prussian landed aristocracy, the Junekers, who were officers in the army too
  5. I.                   The German States
    Will's policies
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Nobles’ support for Will’s policies came from agreement made with them
    • 1.      Eliminate power that members of nobility could exercise in provincial Estates-General through deal
    • a.      I get free hand in running government and you get almost unlimited power over peasants, no taxes, and highest army ranks and Commissariat as long as you don’t challenge my political control
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Peasants were allowed to be bound to soil as serfs and nobles could appropriate their land 
  6. I.                   The German States
    Mercantilist Policies
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Mercantilist policies to build economy
    • 1.      Constructing roads and canals and using high tariffs, subsidies, and monopolies for manufacturers to stimulate domestic industry
    • 2.      Favored interests of nobility at expense of commercial and industrial middle classes
  7. I.                   The German States
    Frederic III (son)
    • a.      Frederic III (son)
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      In return for aiding the Holy Roman Emperor in the War of the Spanish Succession, he was granted the title of king-in-Prussia
    • 1.      Elector Frederick IIIà King Frederick I
  8. I.                   The German States
    • 1.      Austrian Habsburgs= big role in European politics as Holy Roman Emperorsà (end of Thirty Years War) hopes dashed
    • a.      17th: house of Austria transitioned from German empire, which was lost, to new empire
    • 2.      New Austrian Empire with traditional hereditary possessions at heart
    • a.      Lower and Upper Austria, Carinthia, Carniola, Styria, Tyrol
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Added Bohemia and some of Hungary
  9. I.                   The German States
    Leopold I
    • 1.      Leopold I
    • a.      Encouraged eastward movement of Austrian Empireà challenged by Ottoman power, who moved into Transylvania and laid siege to Vienna
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Austrian European army counterattacked and defeated tehm in 1687
    • 1.      Treaty of Karlowitz (1699): Austria took control of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Sloveniaà Austrian Empire
  10. I.                   The German States
    End of Spanish Succession War
    • 1.      End of Spanish Succession War, Austria took Spanish Netherlands and was recognized in Italy, Milan, Mantua, Sardinia, and Naples
    • 2.      18th: considerable sized empire
  11. I.                   The German States
    • 1.      Monarchy
    • a.      Not highly centralized, absolutist state due to different national groups
    • b.      Collection of territories held by personal union
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Habsburg emperor was archduke of Austria, king of Bohemia, king of Hungary
    • 1.      Each area had own laws, Estates-General, and political life
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Landed aristocrats served house of Habsburg, as military officers or government bureaucrats