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2013-01-18 18:23:13
HON 122

State Building and the Search for Order in the 17th Century
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  1. I.                   The Ottoman Empire
    • a.      After conquering Constantinople in 1453, they tried to complete conquest of Balkans
    •                                                               i.      Succeeded in taking Romanian territory of Wallachia in 1476, but Hungarian resistance blocked advancement
    •                                                             ii.      Internal problems and need to consolidate eastern frontiers= no more attacks
  2. I.                   The Ottoman Empire
    • a.      Sultain Suleiman I the Magnificent
    •                                                               i.      Made Turks a threat again
    • 1.      Seized Belgrade in 1521 and Hungary by 1526; Vienna not taken
    • 2.      Extended power into western Mediterranean, threatening to Turk-inize it until the Spanish at Lepanto defeated their fleet in 1571
    • a.      Still, they held much control over southern Mediterranean shores
  3. I.                   The Ottoman Empire
    17th Century
    • a.      17th century: just another European power
    •                                                               i.      Highly effective governmental system, especially when led by strong sultans or powerful grand viziers (prime ministers)
    •                                                             ii.      Capital (Constantinople) had largest population
  4. I.                   The Ottoman Empire
    `17th Century Politics
    •      iii.      Politics= factions fought each other for influence and throne
    •  1.      Sultan would murder brothers to maintain power
    • 2.      Still, a well-trained bureaucracy of civil servants continued to administer state affairs efficiently 
  5. I.                   The Ottoman Empire
    •                                                               i.      Military
    • 1.      Well-organized military system
    • a.      Janissaries= Christian boys who’d been taken from parents, converted to Muslim, and subjected to harsh military discipline to form elite core of 8000 troops loyal to sultan 
  6. I.                   The Ottoman Empire
    First Half of 17th and Second Half
    •                                                               i.      First half of 17th:
    • 1.      “Sleeping giant” occupied by domestic bloodletting and severely threatened by Persians
    •                                                             ii.      Second half:
    • 1.      New line of grand viziersà Ottomans took offensive
    • a.      1683: marched through Hungarian plain and seiged Vienna
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Repulsed by mixed army of Austrians, Poles, Bavarians, and Saxonsà retreated and pushed out of Hungary
    • 1.      Never again a threat