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2013-01-18 18:34:47
HON 122

State Building and the Search for Order in the 17th Century
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  1. I.                   The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic
    • a.      17th: Golden Age of the Dutch Republic as the United Provinces held center state as one of Europe’s great powers
    •                                                               i.      Like France and England, the Univted Provinces was an atlantic power, underlining the importance of the shift of political and economic power from the Mediterranean basin to the countries on the Atlantic seaboard.
    •                                                             ii.      16th century revolt in Netherlandsà 7 northern provinces (Unted Provinces of Netherlands) became core of Dutch state
    • 1.      New state recognized by Peace of Westphalia in 1648
  2. I.                   The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic
    • a.      Independenceà internal dissensioin
    •                                                               i.      Two chief centers of political power with stadholder responsible for leading army and maintaining order
    • 1.      William of Orange and heirs
    • a.      House of Organge held stadholderate in most of 7 provinces and favored development of centralized government with selves as hereditary monarchs
  3. I.                   The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic
    States General
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      States General (assembly of reps from each province) opposed Orangist ambitions and advocated a decentralized (republican) form of government
    • 1.      17th: republicans in control
    • 2.      1672: burdened with war against France and England, United provincesà William III of the house of Orange to establish a monarchical regime
    • a.      Death without heirà republican control 
  4. I.                   The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic
    Economic Prosperity
    • a.      Economic prosperityà dutch prominence
    •                                                               i.      Dutch arried European trade
    •                                                             ii.      Warfare= disastrous
    • 1.      Wars with France and England= heavy burdens on Dutch finances and manpower
    • a.      English shipping challenged wihat had been Dutch commercial supremacy, and by 1715, the Dutch were experiencing a serious economic decline 
  5. I.                   The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic
    Life in 17th 
    • a.      Life in 17th century Amsterdam
    •                                                               i.      Beginning: Amsterdam replaced Antwerp as financial and commercial capital of Europe
    • 1.      1570: Amsterdam had 30k people
    • 2.      1610: number dubled with refugees from Spanish Netherlands 
  6. I.                   The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic
    Life in 17th: 
    • 1.      1613: growthà city government approved “urban expansion plan” that increased city’s territory from 500-1800 acres through construction of three canals
    • a.      Tall, narrow-fronted houses characteristic of the city (wooden columns through mud to firm sand) plotted
    • b.      Canalsà merchants and artisans use upper stories of houses as storerooms
    • c.       Wares carried  by small boats were hoisted to top windows of dwellings by block and tackle beams fastened to the gables of the roof
    • 2.      Physical expansionà 200,000
  7. I.                   The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic
    City's role
    • a.      City’s role as commercial and financial center of Europe
    •                                                               i.      Possible due to:
    • 1.      Amsterdam merchants possessed vast fleets of ships, used for herrings catching
    • 2.      Ships were carriers for export products
    • 3.      Invention of fluyt (shallow-draft ship of large capacity) allowed transport of large quantities of timber, iron, etc.
  8. I.                   The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic
    •                                                               i.      Merchants unloaded cargoes at Dam Square, where goods 50lb+ recorded and tested for quality
    • 1.      Quantity of goods made Amsterdam crossroads for many European products and chief port for Dutch West and East Indian trade companies
    • 2.      City industries turned imported raw materials into finished goods, making it an important producer of woolen cloth, refined sugar, etc. 
  9. I.                   The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic
    Some wealth
    •                                                               i.      Some wealth= war profits
    • 1.      1700: Amsterdam principal supplier of military goods in Europe; gun foundries had customers all over
    •                                                             ii.      Another Factor
    • 1.      Financial center
    • a.      Trading profits= large amounts of capital for investment
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Financial role facilitated by foundation in 2609 of the Exchange Bank of Amsterdam
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      City also founded Amsterdam Stock Exchange for speculating in commodities
  10. I.                   The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic
    Very top
    •                                                               i.      Very top of society: manufactures, shipyard owners, and merchants whose wealth allowed governmental control of Amsterdam and Dutch Republic’s State General
    • 1.      1st half of 17th: Calvinist background of wealthy Amsterdam burghers led to adoption of simple lifestyle
    • a.      Dark clothes, substantial but simply furnished houses
    • b.      Houses were very clean
    • 2.      2nd half: wealthy burghers rejected Calvinismà elaborate clothing