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2013-01-18 19:50:16
HON 122

State Building and the Search for Order in the 17th Century
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  1. I.                   The Changing Faces of Art
    • a.      Artistic renaissance endedà Mannerism in Italy
    • b.      Mannerism
    •                                                               i.      Reformation’s revival of religious values brought much political turmoil
    • 1.      Worldly enthusiasm of Renaissanceà anxiety, uncertainty, suffering, desire for spiritualityà Mannerism
    •                                                             ii.      Attempted to break down the High Renaissance principles of balance, harmony, and moderation
  2. I.                   The Changing Faces of Art
    Mannerist artists
    •                                                               i.      Mannerists painters distorted rules of proportion by portraying elongated figures that conveyed a sense of suffering and a strong emotional atmosphere filled with anxiety and confusion
    •                                                             ii.      Spread from Italy to other partsà height in El Greco
    • 1.      Domenikos Theotocopoulos (El Greco) from Crete, studied in Venice and Rome, moved to Spain, church painter in Toledo
    • a.      Elongated and contorted figures in unusual shades of yellow and green against grayà desire for intense emotion
  3. I.                   The Changing Faces of Art
    • a.      Baroque Period
    •                                                               i.      Mannerism replaced by Baroque (began in Italy in last quarter of 16th century and spread to rest of Europe)
    •                                                             ii.      Embraced by Catholic reform movement (evident in Catholic courts)
    •                                                           iii.      Initially resisted in France, England, and Netherlands, but spread to all of Euorpe and latin America
    •                                                           iv.      Artists
    • 1.      Wanted to bringt together Classical ideals of Renaissacne art and spiritual feelings of 16th century religious revival 
  4. I.                   The Changing Faces of Art
    Baroque Period Art
    • 1.      Dramatic effects to arouse emotions
    • 2.      Reflected search for power that was large part of 17th century ethos
    • 3.      Churches and palances were magnificent and richly detailed
    • a.      Kings and princes wanted all to be in awe of power
    • 4.      Use of dramatic effects to heighten emotional intensity
    • a.      Flemish master Peter Paul Rubens: prolific artist and important figure in spread of the Baroque from Italy throughout Europe
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Bodies in violent motion, heavily fleshed nudes, light and shadow, and rich, sensuous pigments= intense emotionà unity
  5. I.                   The Changing Faces of Art
    Greatest Figure of Baroque
    •                                                               i.      Greatest figure of Baroque was Italian architect and sculptor Gian Lorenzo Bernini
    • 1.      Saint Peter’s Basilica at the Vatican and the vast colonnade enclosing the piazza in front of it
    • a.      Throne of Saint Peter hovers in midair, held by hands of four great doctors of the Catholic Church
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Above chair, rays of golden light drive a mass of clouds and angels toward the spectator
    • b.      Ecstasy of Saint Theresa
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Depicts moment of mystical experience in life of 16th century saint
    • Action and dramatic effects
  6. I.                   The Changing Faces of Art
    Artemisia Gentileschi
    •                                                               i.      Artemisia Gentileschi
    • 1.      Born in Rome, studied painting under father’s direction, moved to Florence to be painter, and at 23, she became the first woman to be elected to the Florentine Academy of Design
    • a.      Known for portrait paintingà fame rests on pictures of heroines form OT
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Judith Beheading Holofernes
    • 1.      A dramatic rendering of the biblican scene in which Judith slays the Assyrian general Holofernes to save her besieged town from the Assyrian army
  7. I.                   The Changing Faces of Art
    French Classicism
    •                                                               i.      Second half of 17th century, France replaced Italy as cultural leader of Europe
    •                                                             ii.      Rejected Baroque style à French remained committed to Classical values of High renaissance
  8. I.                   The Changing Faces of Art
    French Late Classicism
    •                                                               i.      French Late Classicsim
    • 1.      Emphasized clarity, simplicity, balance, and harmony of design = vision of High Renaissance style
    • 2.      Its triumph reflected shift in 17th century French society from chaos to order
    • Rejected emotionalism and high drama of Baroque and continued Baroque’s conception of grandeur in portrayal of noble subjects, especially those from Classical antiquity
  9. I.                   The Changing Faces of Art
    Nicolas Poussin
    1.      Scenes from Classical mythology, orderliness of landscapes, postures of figures copied from antique sculptures, and use of brown tones= French Classicism in 17th century
  10. I.                   The Changing Faces of Art
    Dutch Realism
    •                                                               i.      Supremacy of Dutch commerce= Dutch painting
    • 1.      Wealthy patricians and burghers commissioned works of art for their guild halls, town halls, and private dwellings
    • 2.      Interests of burgher society reflected in subject matter of Dutch paintings
    • a.      Self-portraits, group portraits of military companies and guilds, landscapes, seascapes, genre scenes, still lifes, interiors of their residences
  11. I.                   The Changing Faces of Art
    Dutch Painters
    •                                                               i.      Dutch painters interested in realistic portrayal of secular everyday life
    •                                                             ii.      Judith Leyster
    • 1.      Independtent painter and first female member of Guild of Saint Luke in Haarlemà set up her own workshop and take on three male pupils
    • 2.      Drew musicians playing instruments, women sewing, children laughing, etc. 
  12. I.                   The Changing Faces of Art
    Rembrandt van Rijn
    • 1.      Painted opulent portraits and colorful scenes
    • 2.      Prolific and successful but turned away from materialistic success to follow own artistic pathà lsot support and died bankrupt
    • 3.      Refused to follow contemporaries, whose pictures were secular
    • a.      His were biblical scenes