A&P I test 1

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A&P I test 1
2013-01-18 20:38:35
Anatomy Physiology

Terms for Test 1: organ systems, directional terms, planes of section, body cavities, surface anatomy terms, anatomical position
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  1. Anatomical Position
    The human body is erect, with the feet only slightly apart, head and toes pointed forward, arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward.
  2. Organ Systems
    • Integumentary
    • Skeletal
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
    • Endocrine
    • Cardiovascular
    • Lymphatic/Immune
    • Respiratory
    • Digestive
    • Urinary
    • Reproductive
  3. Integumentary system
    • Major components:
    • Epidermal and dermal regions
    • cutaneous sense organs and glands
    • Function:
    • Protects organs from mechanical, chemical and bacterial injury and desiccation(drying out)
  4. Skeletal system
    • Major components:  Bones, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, joints.
    • Function:  Body support and protection of internal organs, provides levers for muscular action, cavities provide a site for blood formation.
  5. Muscular system
    • Major components:  Muscles attached to the skeleton.
    • Function:  Contract or shorten, in doing so, skeletal muscles allow locomotion, grasping and manipulation of the environment and facial expression, generates heat.
  6. Nervous system
    • Major components:  Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors.
    • Function:  Allows body to detect changes in inernal and external environment and response by activating appropriate muscles or glands, helps maintain homeostasis of the body by rapid transmission of electrical signals.
  7. Endocrine system
    • Major components:  Pituitary, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pineal glands, ovaries, testes and pancreas.
    • Function:  Helps maintain body homeostasis, promotes growth and development, produces hormones that travel in the blood to exert effect on various organs of the body.
  8. Cardiovascular system
    • Major components:  Heart, blood vessels, blood.
    • Function:  Transport system carrying blood containing oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, ions, hormones and other substances to and from tissue cells, antibodies and other protein molecules in the blood protect the body.
  9. Lymphatic/Immunity system
    • Major components:  Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils,lymphoid tissue.
    • Function:  Returns leaked fluid to the blood, cleans blood of pathogens and other debris, Houses lymphocytes that act via immune response to protect body from antigens.
  10. Respiratory system
    • Major functions:  Nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs.
    • Function:  Keep blood supplied with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide, contributes to acid-base balance of blood via carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
  11. Digestive system
    • Major components:  Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, teeth, salivary glands, liver, pancreas.
    • Functions: Breaks down food to particles, which can be absorbed into the blood for delivery to cells, undigested residue removed as feces.
  12. Urinary system
    • Major components:  Kidneys, ureter,s bladder, urethra.
    • Functions:  Rids body of nitrogen-containing wastes, maintains water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of blood, provides germ cells for perpetuation of species.
  13. Reproductive system
    Major components:  Male - testes, prostrate gland, scrotum, penis and duct system to carry sperm; Female - ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, mammary glands, vagina.
  14. Medial/lateral direction
    • Medial - toward the midline
    • Laterial - away from the midline
  15. Cephalad/caudal
    • Cephalad - toward the head
    • Caudal - toward the tail
    • same as superior/inferior in humans
    • same as anterior/posterior in 4-legged animals
  16. Dorsal/ventral
    • Dorsal - backside
    • Ventral - belly side
    • Used chiefly for animals
  17. Proximal/distal
    • Proximal - nearer the trunk or attached end
    • Distal - Farther from the trunk or point of attachment
    • Used for limbs
  18. Sagittal plane
    Runs longitudinally and divides the body into right and left parts
  19. Frontal plane
    • Also called the coronal plane
    • Divides the body into anterior/posterior parts
  20. Transverse plane
    Runs horizontally and divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
  21. Body cavities
    • Dorsal - cranial, vertebral
    • Ventral - Thoracic (heart and lungs), abdominopelvic (4 quadrent system)
  22. Axial region
    Head, neck, and trunk
  23. Antebrachial
  24. Antecubital
    Anterior surface of the elbow
  25. Axillary
  26. Brachial
  27. Buccal
  28. Carpal
  29. Cervical
    Neck region
  30. Coxal
  31. Crural
  32. Digital
    Fingers or toes
  33. Femoral
  34. Fibular (peroneal)
    Side of the leg
  35. Frontal
  36. Hallux
    Big toe
  37. Inguinal
  38. Mammary
  39. Mental
  40. Nasal
  41. Orbital
    Bony eye socket
  42. Palmar
    Palm of the hand
  43. Patellar
    Anterior knee (kneecap)
  44. Pedal
  45. Pollex
  46. Sternal
  47. Tarsal
  48. Thoracic
  49. Acromial
  50. Calcaneal
    Heel of the foot
  51. Cephalic
  52. Dorsum
  53. Lumbar
    Back between the ribs and hips; the loin
  54. Manus
  55. Occipital
    Posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull.
  56. Olecranal
    Postertior aspect of the elbow.
  57. Otic
  58. Perineal
    Region between the anus and external genitalia.
  59. Plantar
    Sole of the foot.
  60. Popliteal
    Back of the knee.
  61. Sacral
    Region between the hips (overlying the sacrum)
  62. Scapular
    Scapula or shoulder blade.
  63. Sural
    Calf or posterior surface of the leg.
  64. Vertebral
    Spinal column.
  65. Structural organization & hierarchy
    • 1. Chemical level - Atoms combine to form molecules.
    • 2. Cellular level - Cells are made up of molecules.
    • 3. Tissue level - Tissues consist of similar types of cells.
    • 4. Organ level - Organs made up of different tissue types.
    • 5. Organ system level - different organs that work closely together.
    • 6. Organismal level - many organ systems together.
  66. Complementarity of structure and function.
    Function also reflects structure.
  67. Interrelatedness of organ systems.
    • Integumentary protects whole body from esternal environment.
    • Digestive and respiratory take in nutrients and oxygen which are then distributed to body cells by blood.
    • Urinary and respiratory systems elimate metabolic wastes.
  68. Homeostasis
    Unchanging - organ systems work together to maintain a relatively stable internal environment.
  69. Homeostatic components
    • Stimulus - variable that changes
    • Sensor or receptor - senses stimulus and relays to control center (via afferent)
    • Control center - Makes decision and sends out a command via efferent
    • Effector that produces the response - brings about response.
  70. Homeostatic control
    • Negative feedback - brings things back to balance, in the opposite direction of the stimulus, most common.
    • Positive feedback - Effect in same direction as stimulus, bring about explosive rapid change, requires a way to stop the process, not common, i.e. labor.
  71. Serious membrane function
    To allow organs to slide over each other without friction.
  72. Parietal/visceral serosa
    • Parietal lines the cavity walls.
    • Visceral covers the organs in the cavity.