Terms for Test 1: organ systems, directional terms, planes of section, body cavities, surface anatomy terms, anatomical position
The human body is erect, with the feet only slightly apart, head and toes pointed forward, arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward.
Epidermal and dermal regions
cutaneous sense organs and glands
Protects organs from mechanical, chemical and bacterial injury and desiccation(drying out)
Major components: Bones, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, joints.
Function: Body support and protection of internal organs, provides levers for muscular action, cavities provide a site for blood formation.
Major components: Muscles attached to the skeleton.
Function: Contract or shorten, in doing so, skeletal muscles allow locomotion, grasping and manipulation of the environment and facial expression, generates heat.
Major components: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors.
Function: Allows body to detect changes in inernal and external environment and response by activating appropriate muscles or glands, helps maintain homeostasis of the body by rapid transmission of electrical signals.
Major components: Pituitary, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pineal glands, ovaries, testes and pancreas.
Function: Helps maintain body homeostasis, promotes growth and development, produces hormones that travel in the blood to exert effect on various organs of the body.
Major components: Heart, blood vessels, blood.
Function: Transport system carrying blood containing oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, ions, hormones and other substances to and from tissue cells, antibodies and other protein molecules in the blood protect the body.
Major components: Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils,lymphoid tissue.
Function: Returns leaked fluid to the blood, cleans blood of pathogens and other debris, Houses lymphocytes that act via immune response to protect body from antigens.
Major functions: Nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs.
Function: Keep blood supplied with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide, contributes to acid-base balance of blood via carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
Major components: Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, teeth, salivary glands, liver, pancreas.
Functions: Breaks down food to particles, which can be absorbed into the blood for delivery to cells, undigested residue removed as feces.
Major components: Kidneys, ureter,s bladder, urethra.
Functions: Rids body of nitrogen-containing wastes, maintains water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of blood, provides germ cells for perpetuation of species.
Major components: Male - testes, prostrate gland, scrotum, penis and duct system to carry sperm; Female - ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, mammary glands, vagina.
Medial - toward the midline
Laterial - away from the midline
Cephalad - toward the head
Caudal - toward the tail
same as superior/inferior in humans
same as anterior/posterior in 4-legged animals
Dorsal - backside
Ventral - belly side
Used chiefly for animals
Proximal - nearer the trunk or attached end
Distal - Farther from the trunk or point of attachment
Used for limbs
Runs longitudinally and divides the body into right and left parts
Also called the coronal plane
Divides the body into anterior/posterior parts
Runs horizontally and divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
Dorsal - cranial, vertebral
Ventral - Thoracic (heart and lungs), abdominopelvic (4 quadrent system)
Head, neck, and trunk
Anterior surface of the elbow
Fingers or toes
Side of the leg
Bony eye socket
Palm of the hand
Anterior knee (kneecap)
Heel of the foot
Back between the ribs and hips; the loin
Posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull.
Postertior aspect of the elbow.
Region between the anus and external genitalia.
Sole of the foot.
Back of the knee.
Region between the hips (overlying the sacrum)
Scapula or shoulder blade.
Calf or posterior surface of the leg.
Structural organization & hierarchy
1. Chemical level - Atoms combine to form molecules.
2. Cellular level - Cells are made up of molecules.
3. Tissue level - Tissues consist of similar types of cells.
4. Organ level - Organs made up of different tissue types.
5. Organ system level - different organs that work closely together.
6. Organismal level - many organ systems together.
Complementarity of structure and function.
Function also reflects structure.
Interrelatedness of organ systems.
Integumentary protects whole body from esternal environment.
Digestive and respiratory take in nutrients and oxygen which are then distributed to body cells by blood.
Urinary and respiratory systems elimate metabolic wastes.
Unchanging - organ systems work together to maintain a relatively stable internal environment.
Stimulus - variable that changes
Sensor or receptor - senses stimulus and relays to control center (via afferent)
Control center - Makes decision and sends out a command via efferent
Effector that produces the response - brings about response.
Negative feedback - brings things back to balance, in the opposite direction of the stimulus, most common.
Positive feedback - Effect in same direction as stimulus, bring about explosive rapid change, requires a way to stop the process, not common, i.e. labor.
Serious membrane function
To allow organs to slide over each other without friction.