The Blood

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rdzlillian
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193686
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The Blood
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2013-01-22 12:24:29
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The Blood - A&P II
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  1. What are the functions of the blood?
    Transportation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones, heat and waste.

    Regulation of body acidity, temperature and water content

    Protection against disease by white blood cells and antibodies
  2. What is Plasma Composed of?
    Plasma proteins - 7%

    Water - 92%

    Other solutes - 1%
  3. What are the Plasma Proteins and what are their functions?
    Albumines - 60% - Major contributors to osmotic pressure of plasma, transport lipids, steroid hormones

    Globulins - 35% - Transport ions, hormones, lipids, immune function

    Fibrinogen - 4% -Essential component of clotting system; can be converted to insoluble fibrin

    Regulatory proteins - <1% - Enzymes, pro-enzymes, hormones
  4. What does Hemopoiesis mean?
    Hemo = blood

    poiesis = to make

    to make blood
  5. What is Hemopoiesis?
    It is the formation of all the blood cells
  6. Where is Hemopoiesis found?
    In Red Bone Marrow and Lymph Tissue
  7. how is Hemopoiesis formed?
    It starts from hemo/cyto/blast stem cells that become Lymphoid or Myeloid stem cells(blood/cell/everywhere; aka: Big mama cell)
  8. What are Lymphoids?
    They are stem cells that produce WBC's called Lymphocytes
  9. What are Myeloids?
    They are stem cells that produce all the other RBC's, Platelets and 4 WBC's
  10. What is another name for RBC's?
    And name one of its characteristics
    Erythocytes

    Hemoglobin molecule that has 4 heme groups and 4 iron ions
  11. What are the functions of the RBC (Erythocytes)
    Hemoglobin transport 97% of Oxygen and 23% of Carbon Dioxide

    Hemoglobin releases Nitric Oxide which participates in the regulation of blood flow
  12. Describe Hemoglobin
    Composed of four iron containing parts called Heme and a protein part called Globin

    Each iron in the Heme bind one oxygen molecule

    Hemoglobin bind oxygen in the lungs and release it in the tissues
  13. What are the requirements for RBC formation?
    Iron

    Amino Acids

    Vitamin B12

    Free iron is toxic, so must combine with proteins to be stored or transported

    Storage molecule is Ferritin, transport molecule is Transferrin
  14. What is the RBC's Development (cascade of development)?
    Hemocytoblast - (big mama)

    Myeloid Stem Cells - (little mama)
  15. Describe the RBC recycling process
    Hemolysis in the blood (breakdown blood)

    • Hemoglobin degraded to globin and heme
    • amino acids of globin recycled

    heme split open releasing iron which is recycled

    Heme - Biliverdin - Bilirubin in bile - urobilin in urine or Sterobilin in feces
  16. What happens if the donor and recipient blood type are not compatible?
    The recipient's plasma antibodies will attack the antigens on the donated RBC's.

    It will cause blood Agglutination and RBC's

    Hemolysis occur in recipient

    Fatal circulatory shock
  17. Describe the general function of the White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)
    Protection by immune response or phagocytosis.

    Whole count is between 5000 - 10,000

    • Differential:
    • Neutrophils - 60-70%
    • Lymphocytes - 20-30%
    • Monocytes - 4-8%
    • Eosinophils - 2-4%
    • Basophils - <1%
  18. Which WBC's are Granular?
    And describe its function
    Neutrophils

    Eosinophils

    Basophils

    Function for phagocytosis and inflammatory response
  19. Which WBC's are Agranular?
    And describe its function
    Lymphocytes and Monocytes

    Function in Antigen-antibody reactions and as macrophages (dead eating cells)
  20. Where are the WBC's formed?
    Lymph Tissue for Lymphocytes

    Red Bone Marrow for Monocytes, Neutrophils, Basophils and Eosinophils
  21. Describe Neutrophil's function, nucleus and cytoplasm
    Function - Phagocytes

    Nucleus and Cytoplasm - Segmented Nucleus and Pink Granules (more than one nucleus)
  22. Describe Lymphocyte's function, nucleus and cytoplasm
    Function - Immunity

    Nucleus and Cytoplasm - Spherical Nucleus and Blue Cytoplasm Ring
  23. Describe Monocyte's function, nucleus and cytoplasm
    Function - Tissue Macrophages

    Nucleus and Cytoplasm - Kidney Shaped Nucleus and Blue Cytoplasm
  24. Describe Eosinophil's function, nucleus and cytoplasm
    Function - Antinflammatory

    Nucleus and Cytoplasm - Bilobed Nucleus and Bright Orange Granules
  25. Describe Basophil's function, nucleus and cytoplasm
    Function - Inflammation

    Nucleus and Cytoplasm - Bilobed nucleus and Dark Purple Granules
  26. What is another name for Platelets?
    Thrombocytes
  27. Where are Platelets (Thrombocytes) produced
    In the Bone Marrow
  28. What do Platelets stimulate in the liver?
    Thrombopoietin
  29. Describe the development of Platelets (Thrombocytes)?
    Myeloid stem cell -> Megakaryoblast -> Megakaryocyte -> Platelets
  30. What is the function of the Platelets (Thrombocytes)?
    Platelets plug formation in blood clotting
  31. What is Hemostasis?
    It is the responses that stop bleeding
  32. What are the 3 phases in Hemostasis?
    And What do they do?
    1) Vascular Phase - it is the contraction of the injured blood vessel, smooth muscle fibers called Vascular Spasm to reduce the blood vessel diameter and decrease the loss of blood

    2) Platelets Phase - Platelets plug formation

    3) Coagulation Phase - Clotting process is called coagulation, clot consists of Fibrin fibers and trapped formed blood elements
  33. Clot formation requires the presence and activation of ------------ and ----------- that is produced in the liver.
  34. Clotting Factors and Calcium
  35. Coagulation phase occurs in three stages, what are they?
    Stage 1 - Formation of Prothrombinase which is an enzime

    Stage 2 - Formation of Thrombin which is also an enzyme

    Stage 3 - Formation of Fibrin fibers
  36. What is the Extrinsic Pathway of Prothrombinase formation?
    Damaged tissue -> Tissue factor -> Activation of clotting factor VII
  37. What is the Intrinsic Pathway of Prothrombinase formation?
    Activation of platelets by collagen -> Platelets factors -> Platelets factors -> Activation of clotting Factor X
  38. What is the Common Pathway of Prothrombinase formation?
    Factor VII + Factor X = Prothrombinase
  39. Describe Fibrinolysis?
    Lysis = the breaking down of Fibrin

    It slowly dissolves the clot
  40. Describe Plasminogen
    it activates Plasmin enzyme

    Active plasmin enzyme catalyzes dissolving of the blood clot

    Plasmin -> Clot dissolving
  41. What is a n Intravascular Clot?
    It is a clot within a closed vessel
  42. What aggregates and releases clotting factors?
    Platelets
  43. What is a Resulting Clot is called?
    Thrombus
  44. What is a moving piece of the clot called?
    Embolus
  45. Clots move downstream and block smaller vessels causing ........
    Embolism
  46. What can happen if a blood clot cuts off the blood supply to the heart?
    It can cause a heart attack or the brain causing a stroke
  47. What are Anticoagulants?
    Chemicals that decreases or prevents blood clotting
  48. Why would Heparin be medically administrated?
    Even though our bodies naturally produce Heparin, it is medically administrated to decrease thrombin production
  49. What is Coumadin (Wararin) used for?
    It is effective in long term cnticoagulant.

    It is an antagonist of vitamin K. (the liver needs vitamin K to make clotting factor)
  50. Why is EDTA (Ethylenediamintetaacetate) and CPD (Citrate Phosphate Dextrose) used in blood banks?
    To keep the donated blood from clotting

    They both work by tying up and removing calcium
  51. What is Polycythemia?
    High RBC's number (7 million)
  52. What is Anemia?
    Low RBC's number (4 million)
  53. What is Leukocytosis?
    High WBC's number (>10,000)
  54. What is Leukopenia?
    Low WBC's number (<10,000)
  55. What are Leukemias?
    Diseases that causes high WBC's
  56. What are Hemophilias?
    Lack of blood coagulation
  57. What is Thrombocytopenia?
    Low platelets number
  58. What is Sickle cell disease?
    Abnormal RBC's form
  59. What is Jaundice?
    Bilirubin leak in the blood

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