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What are the functions of the blood?
Transportation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones, heat and waste.
Regulation of body acidity, temperature and water content
Protection against disease by white blood cells and antibodies
What is Plasma Composed of?
Plasma proteins - 7%
Water - 92%
Other solutes - 1%
What are the Plasma Proteins and what are their functions?
Albumines - 60% - Major contributors to osmotic pressure of plasma, transport lipids, steroid hormones
Globulins - 35% - Transport ions, hormones, lipids, immune function
Fibrinogen - 4% -Essential component of clotting system; can be converted to insoluble fibrin
Regulatory proteins - <1% - Enzymes, pro-enzymes, hormones
What does Hemopoiesis mean?
Hemo = blood
poiesis = to make
to make blood
What is Hemopoiesis?
It is the formation of all the blood cells
Where is Hemopoiesis found?
In Red Bone Marrow and Lymph Tissue
how is Hemopoiesis formed?
It starts from hemo/cyto/blast stem cells that become Lymphoid or Myeloid stem cells(blood/cell/everywhere; aka: Big mama cell)
What are Lymphoids?
They are stem cells that produce WBC's called Lymphocytes
What are Myeloids?
They are stem cells that produce all the other RBC's, Platelets and 4 WBC's
What is another name for RBC's?
And name one of its characteristics
Hemoglobin molecule that has 4 heme groups and 4 iron ions
What are the functions of the RBC (Erythocytes)
Hemoglobin transport 97% of Oxygen and 23% of Carbon Dioxide
Hemoglobin releases Nitric Oxide which participates in the regulation of blood flow
Composed of four iron containing parts called Heme and a protein part called Globin
Each iron in the Heme bind one oxygen molecule
Hemoglobin bind oxygen in the lungs and release it in the tissues
What are the requirements for RBC formation?
Free iron is toxic, so must combine with proteins to be stored or transported
Storage molecule is Ferritin, transport molecule is Transferrin
What is the RBC's Development (cascade of development)?
Hemocytoblast - (big mama)
Myeloid Stem Cells - (little mama)
Describe the RBC recycling process
Hemolysis in the blood (breakdown blood)
- Hemoglobin degraded to globin and heme
- amino acids of globin recycled
heme split open releasing iron which is recycled
Heme - Biliverdin - Bilirubin in bile - urobilin in urine or Sterobilin in feces
What happens if the donor and recipient blood type are not compatible?
The recipient's plasma antibodies will attack the antigens on the donated RBC's.
It will cause blood Agglutination and RBC's
Hemolysis occur in recipient
Fatal circulatory shock
Describe the general function of the White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)
Protection by immune response or phagocytosis.
Whole count is between 5000 - 10,000
- Neutrophils - 60-70%
- Lymphocytes - 20-30%
- Monocytes - 4-8%
- Eosinophils - 2-4%
- Basophils - <1%
Which WBC's are Granular?
And describe its function
Function for phagocytosis and inflammatory response
Which WBC's are Agranular?
And describe its function
Lymphocytes and Monocytes
Function in Antigen-antibody reactions and as macrophages (dead eating cells)
Where are the WBC's formed?
Lymph Tissue for Lymphocytes
Red Bone Marrow for Monocytes, Neutrophils, Basophils and Eosinophils
Describe Neutrophil's function, nucleus and cytoplasm
Function - Phagocytes
Nucleus and Cytoplasm - Segmented Nucleus and Pink Granules (more than one nucleus)
Describe Lymphocyte's function, nucleus and cytoplasm
Function - Immunity
Nucleus and Cytoplasm - Spherical Nucleus and Blue Cytoplasm Ring
Describe Monocyte's function, nucleus and cytoplasm
Function - Tissue Macrophages
Nucleus and Cytoplasm - Kidney Shaped Nucleus and Blue Cytoplasm
Describe Eosinophil's function, nucleus and cytoplasm
Function - Antinflammatory
Nucleus and Cytoplasm - Bilobed Nucleus and Bright Orange Granules
Describe Basophil's function, nucleus and cytoplasm
Function - Inflammation
Nucleus and Cytoplasm - Bilobed nucleus and Dark Purple Granules
What is another name for Platelets?
Where are Platelets (Thrombocytes) produced
In the Bone Marrow
What do Platelets stimulate in the liver?
Describe the development of Platelets (Thrombocytes)?
Myeloid stem cell -> Megakaryoblast -> Megakaryocyte -> Platelets
What is the function of the Platelets (Thrombocytes)?
Platelets plug formation in blood clotting
What is Hemostasis?
It is the responses that stop bleeding
What are the 3 phases in Hemostasis?
And What do they do?
1) Vascular Phase - it is the contraction of the injured blood vessel, smooth muscle fibers called Vascular Spasm to reduce the blood vessel diameter and decrease the loss of blood
2) Platelets Phase - Platelets plug formation
3) Coagulation Phase - Clotting process is called coagulation, clot consists of Fibrin fibers and trapped formed blood elements
Clot formation requires the presence and activation of ------------ and ----------- that is produced in the liver.
Clotting Factors and Calcium
Coagulation phase occurs in three stages, what are they?
Stage 1 - Formation of Prothrombinase which is an enzime
Stage 2 - Formation of Thrombin which is also an enzyme
Stage 3 - Formation of Fibrin fibers
What is the Extrinsic Pathway of Prothrombinase formation?
Damaged tissue -> Tissue factor -> Activation of clotting factor VII
What is the Intrinsic Pathway of Prothrombinase formation?
Activation of platelets by collagen -> Platelets factors -> Platelets factors -> Activation of clotting Factor X
What is the Common Pathway of Prothrombinase formation?
Factor VII + Factor X = Prothrombinase
Lysis = the breaking down of Fibrin
It slowly dissolves the clot
it activates Plasmin enzyme
Active plasmin enzyme catalyzes dissolving of the blood clot
Plasmin -> Clot dissolving
What is a n Intravascular Clot?
It is a clot within a closed vessel
What aggregates and releases clotting factors?
What is a Resulting Clot is called?
What is a moving piece of the clot called?
Clots move downstream and block smaller vessels causing ........
What can happen if a blood clot cuts off the blood supply to the heart?
It can cause a heart attack or the brain causing a stroke
What are Anticoagulants?
Chemicals that decreases or prevents blood clotting
Why would Heparin be medically administrated?
Even though our bodies naturally produce Heparin, it is medically administrated to decrease thrombin production
What is Coumadin (Wararin) used for?
It is effective in long term cnticoagulant.
It is an antagonist of vitamin K. (the liver needs vitamin K to make clotting factor)
Why is EDTA (Ethylenediamintetaacetate) and CPD (Citrate Phosphate Dextrose) used in blood banks?
To keep the donated blood from clotting
They both work by tying up and removing calcium
What is Polycythemia?
High RBC's number (7 million)
What is Anemia?
Low RBC's number (4 million)
What is Leukocytosis?
High WBC's number (>10,000)
What is Leukopenia?
Low WBC's number (<10,000)
What are Leukemias?
Diseases that causes high WBC's
What are Hemophilias?
Lack of blood coagulation
What is Thrombocytopenia?
Low platelets number
What is Sickle cell disease?
Abnormal RBC's form
What is Jaundice?
Bilirubin leak in the blood