QTR2 Basic Neuro CH1 Embryology

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bradley.knox
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QTR2 Basic Neuro CH1 Embryology
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2013-01-28 12:09:23
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basic neuro
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  1. When does the CNS first appear?
    First 3 weeks of gestation
  2. Where is the cervical flexure located?
    Junction of spinal cord and hindbrain
  3. Where is the cephalic flexure located?
    within midbrain
  4. Where is the pontine flexure located?
    between met and myle
  5. When does the anterior and posterior neuropores close?
    • anterior 25 days
    • Posterior 27 days
  6. Where does the first fusion of the neural folds occur?
    Somite 4
  7. What cells give rise to sensory ganglia, CN V, VII, IX, X, neuroblasts, schwann cells, pigment cells, odontoblasts, meninges, pharyngeal arches and adrenal medulla?
    Neural crest cells
  8. When do the first three dilations of in the neural tubes and what are they?
    • 3 weeks
    • Prosenephalon (forebrain)
    • Mesencephalon (midbrain)
    • Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
  9. What does the prosenephalon develop into at five weeks?
    • Telencephalon (L & R Ventricles)
    • Diencephalon (3rd Ventricle)
  10. What does the mesencephalon develop into at 5 weeks?
    Midbrain (Cerebral Aquiduct)
  11. What does the rhombencephalon divide into during the 5th week?
    Metencephalon (pons and cerebellum) 4th ventricle

    Mylencephalon (medulla) 4th ventricle
  12. What marks the boundary of the metencephalon and mylencephalon?
    third flexure
  13. What connects the lateral and 3rd ventricles?
    Interventricular foreman (of Monro)
  14. What is the opening between the 4th ventricle and subarachnoid space?
    Foramen of Luscka and Magendie
  15. What is the zone surrounding the neuroepithelium; that will later form the grey matter in the spinal cord called?
    Mantel
  16. What is the outermost layer of the spinal cord that contains the nerve fibers emerging from the mantel layer?
    Marginal layer
  17. What is the function of the basal plates? 
    Motor neurons (ventral)
  18. What is the function of the alar plates?
    sensory neurons (Dorsal)
  19. Loss of what cells in the trigiminal area can be seen as a cause of cleft palate?
    Neural Crest Cells
  20. What is the mophologic origin of neural crest cells?
    ectoderm
  21. What separates the dorsal and ventral regions during spinal cord development?
    sulcus limitans
  22. What cranial nerve(s) stem from the General Somatic Efferent group in the myelencephalon (medulla)?
    • CN XII Hypoglossal n. 
    • (Tongue Muscles)
  23. What cranial nerve(s) stem from Special Visceral Efferent group in the mylencephalon (medulla)?
    CN IX Glossopharyngeal (stylopharygenus muscle)

    CN X. Vagus (pharnyx)

    CN XI Accessory (sternoclidomastod)
  24. What cranial nerve(s) stem from the General visceral efferent group?
    CN X Vagus heart, lungs, GI tract (parasympathetic)
  25. What cranial nerve(s) stem from the general visceral afferent group in the mylencephalon?
    CN X Vagus (sensory from heart and GI tract)
  26. What cranial nerve(s) stem from the special visceral afferent group of the mylencephalon?
    CN VII Facial n. taste (ant 2/3), palate (solitary tract)

    Some CN IX and X
  27. What cranial nerve(s) stem from the general and special somatic afferent groups of the mylencephalon?
    • CN VII Facial n.
    • CN V Trigeminal (sensory face and head)
  28. What forms from alar neurons moving ventrally in order to project into the cerebellum (in mylencephalon)
     Inferior olivary nucleus
  29. What cranial nerves stem from the General Somatic Efferent group in the metencephalon (pons, cerebellum)?
    CN VI Abducens (lateral rectus muscle)
  30. What cranial nerve(s) stem from the Special visceral efferent group in the metencephalon (pons, cerebellum)?
    CN V. trigeminal n. (mastication muscles)

    CN VII. Facial n. (facial expression)
  31. What cranial nerve(s) stem from the general visceral efferent group in the metencephalon?
    CN VII. Facial n. (Secretomotor)
  32. What is formed by alar plates moving ventrally in the pons (which connects with cerebellum)
    Pontine nuclei
  33. What connnects the pontine nuclei with the cerebellum?
    middle cerebrebellum peduncle
  34. What cranial nerve(s) stem from the general somatic afferent group in the metencephalon?
    • CN V Trigiminal n. (teeth and oral cavities)
    • VIII vestibulocochlear (auditory)
  35. What tract makes up the special visceral afferent group of the metencephalon?
    solitary tract
  36. what nucleus makes up the general visceral afferent group of the metencephalon?
    dorsal sensory tract of vagus
  37. what fuses in the metencephalon to form the cerebellum?
    rhombic lips
  38. What cranial nerves stem from the somatic efferent grp in the mesencephalon (midbrain)?
    • CN III oculomotor n.
    • CN IV trochlear n. (superior oblique)
  39. What cranial nerve(s) stem from the general visceral efferent group of the mesencephalon?
    Edinger westphal nucleus (close iris)
  40. What part of the brain stem houses the red nucleus and substantia nigra?
    mesencephalon (midbrain)
  41. What part of the mesencephalon acts as stereo sound receptors?
    inferior colliculi
  42. what part of the mesencephalon has visual motor function>
    Superior colliculi
  43. What is the function of the dorsal and ventral thalamus?
    • Dorsal - visual and auditory info 
    • Ventral - relay station
  44. What is the connecting portion of the lateral vesicles?
    Lamina terminalis
  45. What are the overall functions of the hypothalamus?
    sleep, temp, digestion, reproduction, ect
  46. What is the function of the anterior hypothalamus?
    parasypathetic
  47. what is the function of the posterior hypothalamus?
    sympathetic
  48. what is the neurohypophysis and what does it develop from?
    • posterior pituitary gland
    • diencephalon
  49. what is the function of the neurohypophysis?
    uterin contraction
  50. what is the adenohypophysis and what does if form from?
    • Anterior pituitary gland
    • rathke's pouch (roof of mouth)
  51. What allows communication between the lateral ventricles and vIII?
    Foramen of monro
  52. what forms from rapidly growing bulges of basal tissue in the inferior lateral portions of the telencephalon?
    corpus striatum
  53. where does the massa intermedia develop?
    diencephalon
  54. Developing from the metencephalon the superior colliculi are related to visuomotor processes (true or false)
    False 

    It develops in the mesencephalon (midbrain)
  55. What does the corpus striatum become and what does it modulate?
    • Basal ganglia
    • modulates - Caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus (puntamen and globus pallidus)
  56. What fiber bundle extends from roof plate of diencephalon to the optic chiasm?
    Lamina terminalis (anterior to hypothalamus)
  57. What commissure consists of fibers connecting the olfactory bulbs and interconnects the L and R temporal lobes?
    Anterior Commissure
  58. What commissure arises near the hippocamupus and arches anteriorally (pleasure pathway)
    Fornix (hippocampal commissure)
  59. What commissure is important in coordinating eye movement?
    posterior commissure
  60. a failure of fusion of the anterior neuropore is called what?
    anencephally
  61. which of the following is derived from neural crest tissues? 
    adrenal medulla
    trigeminal ganglia
    both
    none
    both
  62. what tissue is Rathke's pouch derived from?
    stomodial ectoderm
  63. during what week is the telencephalon initially formed?
    fifth
  64. fusion of the neural tube occurs at approximately what day?
    22 days
  65. Which cranial nerves all have GSA fibers and innervate structure derived from pharyngeal arches?
    CN V, VII, IX, X
  66. what type of fiber is always parasympathetic and innervate smooth muscle of viscera and vessels?
    General visceral efferent
  67. What type of fiber supplies muscles which are derived from the brachial arches?
    • Special visceral efferent
    • CN V, VII, IX, X, XI
  68. what type of fibers aris from motor neuron cell bodies in the ventral horns of the gray matter of the spinal cord; carry motor impulses to skeletal muscle?
    General Somatic Efferent
  69. what type of fibers conduct sensory impulses from the viscera, glands and blood vesseles?
    • General Viseral Afferent
    • CN IX, X
  70. what type of fibers carry special senses of smell and taste
    • Special Visceral Afferent
    • CN I, VII, IX, X
  71. what type of fiber is found in all spinal nerves and conducts pain, touch, temp, from muscles, tendons, joints?
    General somati afferent
  72. What type of fibers carry information from the special sense of vision, hearing, balance
    • Special somatic Afferent
    • CN II, VIII

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