QTR2 Basic Neuro CH1 Embryology
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When does the CNS first appear?
First 3 weeks of gestation
Where is the cervical flexure located?
Junction of spinal cord and hindbrain
Where is the cephalic flexure located?
Where is the pontine flexure located?
between met and myle
When does the anterior and posterior neuropores close?
- anterior 25 days
- Posterior 27 days
Where does the first fusion of the neural folds occur?
What cells give rise to sensory ganglia, CN V, VII, IX, X, neuroblasts, schwann cells, pigment cells, odontoblasts, meninges, pharyngeal arches and adrenal medulla?
Neural crest cells
When do the first three dilations of in the neural tubes and what are they?
- 3 weeks
- Prosenephalon (forebrain)
- Mesencephalon (midbrain)
- Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
What does the prosenephalon develop into at five weeks?
- Telencephalon (L & R Ventricles)
- Diencephalon (3rd Ventricle)
What does the mesencephalon develop into at 5 weeks?
Midbrain (Cerebral Aquiduct)
What does the rhombencephalon divide into during the 5th week?
Metencephalon (pons and cerebellum) 4th ventricle
Mylencephalon (medulla) 4th ventricle
What marks the boundary of the metencephalon and mylencephalon?
What connects the lateral and 3rd ventricles?
Interventricular foreman (of Monro)
What is the opening between the 4th ventricle and subarachnoid space?
Foramen of Luscka and Magendie
What is the zone surrounding the neuroepithelium; that will later form the grey matter in the spinal cord called?
What is the outermost layer of the spinal cord that contains the nerve fibers emerging from the mantel layer?
What is the function of the basal plates?
Motor neurons (ventral)
What is the function of the alar plates?
sensory neurons (Dorsal)
Loss of what cells in the trigiminal area can be seen as a cause of cleft palate?
Neural Crest Cells
What is the mophologic origin of neural crest cells?
What separates the dorsal and ventral regions during spinal cord development?
What cranial nerve(s) stem from the General Somatic Efferent group in the myelencephalon (medulla)?
- CN XII Hypoglossal n.
- (Tongue Muscles)
What cranial nerve(s) stem from Special Visceral Efferent group in the mylencephalon (medulla)?
CN IX Glossopharyngeal (stylopharygenus muscle)
CN X. Vagus (pharnyx)
CN XI Accessory (sternoclidomastod)
What cranial nerve(s) stem from the General visceral efferent group?
CN X Vagus heart, lungs, GI tract (parasympathetic)
What cranial nerve(s) stem from the general visceral afferent group in the mylencephalon?
CN X Vagus (sensory from heart and GI tract)
What cranial nerve(s) stem from the special visceral afferent group of the mylencephalon?
CN VII Facial n. taste (ant 2/3), palate (solitary tract)
Some CN IX and X
What cranial nerve(s) stem from the general and special somatic afferent groups of the mylencephalon?
- CN VII Facial n.
- CN V Trigeminal (sensory face and head)
What forms from alar neurons moving ventrally in order to project into the cerebellum (in mylencephalon)
Inferior olivary nucleus
What cranial nerves stem from the General Somatic Efferent group in the metencephalon (pons, cerebellum)?
CN VI Abducens (lateral rectus muscle)
What cranial nerve(s) stem from the Special visceral efferent group in the metencephalon (pons, cerebellum)?
CN V. trigeminal n. (mastication muscles)
CN VII. Facial n. (facial expression)
What cranial nerve(s) stem from the general visceral efferent group in the metencephalon?
CN VII. Facial n. (Secretomotor)
What is formed by alar plates moving ventrally in the pons (which connects with cerebellum)
What connnects the pontine nuclei with the cerebellum?
middle cerebrebellum peduncle
What cranial nerve(s) stem from the general somatic afferent group in the metencephalon?
- CN V Trigiminal n. (teeth and oral cavities)
- VIII vestibulocochlear (auditory)
What tract makes up the special visceral afferent group of the metencephalon?
what nucleus makes up the general visceral afferent group of the metencephalon?
dorsal sensory tract of vagus
what fuses in the metencephalon to form the cerebellum?
What cranial nerves stem from the somatic efferent grp in the mesencephalon (midbrain)?
- CN III oculomotor n.
- CN IV trochlear n. (superior oblique)
What cranial nerve(s) stem from the general visceral efferent group of the mesencephalon?
Edinger westphal nucleus (close iris)
What part of the brain stem houses the red nucleus and substantia nigra?
What part of the mesencephalon acts as stereo sound receptors?
what part of the mesencephalon has visual motor function>
What is the function of the dorsal and ventral thalamus?
- Dorsal - visual and auditory info
- Ventral - relay station
What is the connecting portion of the lateral vesicles?
What are the overall functions of the hypothalamus?
sleep, temp, digestion, reproduction, ect
What is the function of the anterior hypothalamus?
what is the function of the posterior hypothalamus?
what is the neurohypophysis and what does it develop from?
- posterior pituitary gland
what is the function of the neurohypophysis?
what is the adenohypophysis and what does if form from?
- Anterior pituitary gland
- rathke's pouch (roof of mouth)
What allows communication between the lateral ventricles and vIII?
Foramen of monro
what forms from rapidly growing bulges of basal tissue in the inferior lateral portions of the telencephalon?
where does the massa intermedia develop?
Developing from the metencephalon the superior colliculi are related to visuomotor processes (true or false)
It develops in the mesencephalon (midbrain)
What does the corpus striatum become and what does it modulate?
- Basal ganglia
- modulates - Caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus (puntamen and globus pallidus)
What fiber bundle extends from roof plate of diencephalon to the optic chiasm?
Lamina terminalis (anterior to hypothalamus)
What commissure consists of fibers connecting the olfactory bulbs and interconnects the L and R temporal lobes?
What commissure arises near the hippocamupus and arches anteriorally (pleasure pathway)
Fornix (hippocampal commissure)
What commissure is important in coordinating eye movement?
a failure of fusion of the anterior neuropore is called what?
which of the following is derived from neural crest tissues?
what tissue is Rathke's pouch derived from?
during what week is the telencephalon initially formed?
fusion of the neural tube occurs at approximately what day?
Which cranial nerves all have GSA fibers and innervate structure derived from pharyngeal arches?
CN V, VII, IX, X
what type of fiber is always parasympathetic and innervate smooth muscle of viscera and vessels?
General visceral efferent
What type of fiber supplies muscles which are derived from the brachial arches?
- Special visceral efferent
- CN V, VII, IX, X, XI
what type of fibers aris from motor neuron cell bodies in the ventral horns of the gray matter of the spinal cord; carry motor impulses to skeletal muscle?
General Somatic Efferent
what type of fibers conduct sensory impulses from the viscera, glands and blood vesseles?
- General Viseral Afferent
- CN IX, X
what type of fibers carry special senses of smell and taste
- Special Visceral Afferent
- CN I, VII, IX, X
what type of fiber is found in all spinal nerves and conducts pain, touch, temp, from muscles, tendons, joints?
General somati afferent
What type of fibers carry information from the special sense of vision, hearing, balance
- Special somatic Afferent
- CN II, VIII
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