patho chapter 1
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What is pathophysiology?
study & diagnosis of disease through examination of organs, tissues, cells, and bodily fluids
What is the goal of pathophysiology?
to reveal physiologic responses of an organism to disruptions in its internal or external environment
What is pathophysiology studied in terms of common/classic presentations of disorders?
common and expected responses allow us to make general predictions of progression, identification of causes, and selection of interventions
Physiology exams disturbances of normal ____, ______, and ______ functions caused by a disease, syndrome, or abnormal function.
mechanical, physical, and biochemical
What are the 4 interrelated topics included in pathophysiology?
etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment implications
study of the causes or reasons for phenomena
identification of causal factors that provoke a particular disease of injury
What is an idiopathic disease?
a disease where the cause is unknown
the cause of the condition is an unintended or unwated medical treatment
the link between an etiologic factor and development of a disease is not certain, but it increases the probability of the disease occurring
What is the usefulness of identifying risk factors for a condition?
When is it possible to call a factor the "cause" of a condition
when a disease cannot occur without that factor
the progression of a disease from the initial stimulus to the end expression of manifestations of the disease
description of how etiologic factors are thought to alter physiologic function and lead to development of clinical manifestations that may be observed for that disorder/disease
What are signs of a disease?
How are signs gathered?
objective manifestations of a disease that can be observed
What are symptoms?
subjective feelings of an abnormality in the body that can only be reported by the affected individual to an observer
Nausea is a subjective manifestation called a _______, and vomiting is an objective manifestation called a ______.
When the etiology of a particular set of signs and symptoms has not yet been determined, the disorder may be termed a ______.
What is the latent period of a disease?
What is it called when an infectious agent is involved?
the interval b/t exposure of a tissue to an injurious agent and the first appearance of signs and symptoms
What is the prodromal period?
What are these signs and symptoms usually like?
time when signs and symptoms first appear
What is the acute stage of illness?
disease reaches full intensity & S/S are worst
What is a silent period or latent period in a disease?
the S/S of an illness become mild or disappear for a time during the course of an illness
If an organ is damaged by a disease why may S/S of this damage not occur until there is a lot of damage?
the structure and function of many organs provide a large reserve so that functional impairment may become evident only when organ damage has become advanced
A ______ condition has relatively severe manifestations but runs a short course measured in hours, days, or a few weeks.
A ______ condition lasts for months to years and may begin with an acute phase and become prolonged when the body is unable to overcome a stressor.
What is an exacerbation?
relatively sudden increase in the severity of a disease or any of its signs and symptoms
What is a remission?
absence or decline in severity of the S/S of a disease
When is a person said to be cured?
when a remission is permanent/ longer than 5 years
______ is the stage of recovery after a disease, injury, or surgical operation.
The ______ of an inflammatory process might be scarring and of acute rheumatic inflammation of the heart might be scarring and deformation of cardiac valves.
sequela - pathologic condition that results from a disease
What is a complication of a disease?
a new or separate process that may arise secondarily b/c of some change produced by the original problem
Why is understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical consequences of a particular disorder helpful?
suggests interventions for that condition
How do we determine if a certain finding indicates a disease?
compare it to "normal" findings
How should the nurse determine if a pt BP of 90/70 could indicate a problem?
compare it to the pt baseline BP
the pt change in data is more significant than how the data compares to norms
What is validity/acuracy?
degree to which a measurement reflects the true value of the object it is intended to measure
What is reliability/precision?
ability of a test to give the same result in repeated measurements
What is the predictive value of a test?
the extent to which the test can differnetiate between the presence of absence of a condition in an individual
What is the positive predictive value?
estimate of the probability that disease is present if the test is positive
What is negative predictive value?
an estimate of the probability that disease is absent if the test is negative
The predictive value ofa test depends upon the ____ & ____ of the test and upon what?
- sensitivity and specificity of the test
- probability of the disease being present before the test is obtained
Sensitivity and specificity are measures of what?
how well a given test can discriminate between persons with and without a given condition
_____ is the probability that the test will be positive when applied to a person with the condition.
What does it mean if a test has a sensitivity of 80%
20% of a group of ppl taking the test will test negative for it even though they have the condition
_______ is the probability that a test will be negative when applied to a person who does not have a given condition.
What does it mean if a test has a specificity of 95%?
5% of ppl being tested will test positive for the condition even though they don't have it
If a test has a high sensitivity and specificity rate what can still cause it to give faulty results?
testing ppl with a low probability of having the condition in the first place
Why are trends and changes in a particular individual more reliable than single observations?
because they are based on the individuals baseline data and not on norms
norms are different based on age, gender, culture, etc
Why might a person need to know what time of day a test was done?
some factors vary according to circadian rhythm
2 reasons why knowing differences among individuals can be helpful?
determining disease they are susceptible to and their reactions to diseases the contract
the study of patterns of disease involving aggregates of ppl
examines the occurrence, incidence, prevalence, transmission, and distribution of diseases in large groups of ppl or populations
A disease that is native to a local region is called an ____ disease.
If a disease is caught by many individuals a the same time the situation is called an ______.
______ are epidemics taht affect large geographic regions
5 principal factors affecting patterns of disease in human populations?
- 1. age
- 2. ethnic group
- 3. gender
- 4. socioeconomic factors and lifestyle considerations
- 5. geographic location
The changes in function that occur during the early years of life are called ______ processes.
The changes in function that occur during maturity and postmaturity are called _____ process.
What is gerontology?
the study of aging processes and other changes that occur during post-maturity
Differences in the occurence of certain disease states in ethnic groups may be due to _____ or ______.
genetics or location
Why is it important to recognize the diversity in disease risk by racial or ethnic groups?
aids in diagnosis, prevention, and management of conditions
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
_____ is the leading cause of hospital infections and is now resistant to 95% of first-choice antibiotics and 30% of second-choice antibiotics.
_____ is considered the main source for infections acquired during hospitalizations.
What is an effective way to change lifestyle patterns of a pt that contribute to disease?
World Health Organization
National Institutes of Health
WHO definition of health?
complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
What are the 3 levels of prevention that treatment implications fall into?
primary, secondary, and tertiary
prevention of disease by altering susceptibility or reducing exposure for susceptible individuals
the early detection, screening, and management of the disease
When will secondary prevention help?
only in early disease - preclinical and clinical stages
When is it appropriate?
rehabilitative and supportive care and attempts to alleviate disability and restore effective functioning
Immunizations, safety precautions and improvements in the environment and lifestyle of a person are examples of ________ prevention.
Yearly physical exams and routine screeening are examples of ______ prevention.
secondary, because they lead to early detection
removing a small amount of fluid from the amniotic sac that surrounds the fetus and anlayzing the cells and chemicals in the fluid
What is the difference between primary and secondary prevention?
primary prevention are things that are done to actually prevent a condition or trauma, and secondary prevention are measures that are taken so that a condition will be detected and dealt with early if it is found
Once a disease becomes established treatment falls into one of the what 2 major categories?
medical and surgical
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