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What are the three types of ecological studies?
- 1. Observational
- 2. experimental
- 3. theoretical
What is observational study?
obtaining data on organisms in nature without intervening
What is experimental study?
manipulations in the field or laboratory
What is theoretical study?
generalizations, predictions, mathematical models
change in the properties of populations over the course of generations caused by descent with modification
a group of conspecific organisms
a process that produces adaptations resulting from differential reproductive success among organism in the same population (Charles Darwin, Alfred Wallace)
major force of evolution
used to predict how species will repsond to graphic/local change
Characteristics that suit organisms to their environment
Number of viable offspring produced during and organism's entire life
When does a population evolve?
When individuals with different genetic makeup survive or reproduce at different rates
The relative success of a phenotype affects what part of a population?
evolutionary history of organisms based on their genealogical relationships.
Fossils can show the link between __________ and ______.
evolutionary history of organisms based on their genealogical relationships (common ancestry)
How are ecology and evolution inextricably linked
1. Interactions between organisms and their environment create adaptations via natural selection
2. Natural selection molds ecological interactions
evolutionary and ecological processes may occur on similar time scales leading to feedbacks that can be observed directly. Leads to global change
What is the philosophy of ecology?
- 1. Explained only by reference to natural causes
- 2. Does not reject or accept supernatural forces
- 3. Can be justified purely on practical grounds
- Evolutionary theory should not be used to judge moral or ethical issues
- 4. position that supernatural forces to not exist
What happens to individuals during stabilizing selection? What keeps the others going? Give examples
- 1. Heterozygotes/averages are preserved.
- 2. Variation is reduced
- 3. Mutations - less fit individuals produced by accident, they do well in another area
Ex: Average babies survive better than heavy and light ones
What causes directional selection? Give Examples
- 1. Climate change
- 2. Frequency of phenotype favored by environment
Ex: Texas longhorns were developed to fight off predation. Males with long horns survived. Ones who developed resistance to diseases survived
How does Diversifying Selection occur? Give examples
- 1. Most common compete for food and die off
- 2. Extremes benefit in changing environment
- 3. Less common go unnoticed
- 4. Parasitism- parasite adapt to live inside most common type
** may lead to two new species
Ex: African with big bills or small bills survive
reproductive success of an organism relative to others in the same population
What are the conditions necessary for natural selection?
- 1. Phenotypic Variation
- 2. Different phenotypes have different variation
- 3. Phenotypic variation is hertable
What is phenotypic variation? What kind of phenotypic variation are there?
variation in traits among organism
- 1. continuous -- bell shaped -- Aa more fit
- 2. discontinuous -- blocks --
Genotypes -> _________ -> Fitness
Explain how natural selection affects this concept.
Natural selection increase frequency of genes in a population that code for traits which give individuals the highest fitness.
What caused the change in phenotypic frequencies in polluted areas?
Predation: the moths that could be seen were eaten
As pollution decreased, ___________ moths became more common in the industrial areas.
Explain how the Galapagos ground finch in 1978 portrayed directional selection.
There was a drought where only large, hard seeds could be cracked, so finches with large beaks survived, thus the directional shift towards large beak phenotype
when two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species
What is frequency-dependent survival and how did it work in the guppies in Trinidad?
It is when fitness of a genotype depends on whether it is rare or common. (its fitness is affected by genotypes frequencies of others in the same population.
The recapture of rare guppies were higher because the common ones were eaten.
What does frequency-dependent survival promote?
Explain why the hindlimb length of Tree Lizards increases with mean perch diameter in Schoener and Losos' study in 1977-1991.
Phenotypic Plasticity - environmental (not genetic) effects on phenotype variation
Lizards raised in cages with only narrow perches developed __________.
the variety of life, including variation among genes, species, and functional traits
What are the components of biodiversity?
- genetics diversity
- species diversity
- functional diversity
the diversity of genes in populations
the diversity of functional roles that species play in ecosystem processes
the diversity of species in the community
number of species
the distribution of the abundance of individuals within each species in the community
What is Simpson's Diversity Equation?
D = 1-
what are the variables S, c, A, and z for relationship between number of species and area curve?
- S = Number of species
- c = y intercept concept
- A = areal of island
- z = constant (slope)
Why are there more species on larger islands?
- 1. There are more types of habitats on larger islands (mountains, freshwater ponds, lakes and streams)
- 2. The physical environment is more benign on larger islands (fewer disturbances) because smaller islands have a greater perimeter/area
- 3.Extinction rate is lower on larger islands because populations size of each species is larger
The species-area relationship is also found in mainland areas but the slope of the line is lower. Why?
Species diversity is higher in the tropics than other areas on earth
Why are there more species in the tropics?
- 1. Tropical communities have had more time for speciation than temperate or polar communities
- 2. more species can adapt to favorable climates than harsh climates in other areas
- 3. tropical zones contain more area on the globe than temperate areas
Different temperatures precipitation lead to creation of different __________.
an environment that is defined by its climatic and geographic attributes and characterized by ecologically similar orgamisms, particularly its dominant plants
- Long cold winters
- short cool summers
- Found in the Artic and high elevations in mountatins
Tropical Alpine Tundra have no permafrost. phosynthesis occurs
few plants and birds. more in the summer. Plants have hairy leaves that trap heat. Animals have thick fur
Borreal and Temperate Evergreen Forrest (Taiga)
lower altitudes than tundras
- COLD COLD winters.
- Warms summers, migratory birds come
- summer favors evergreen leaves.
- low plants and animals in the winter. Moose, hares, rodents, insects
Temperate Deciduous forest
changes with seasons
- warm, moist summers
- cold winters
trees and shrubs, many animals. permanent residents gain fat to keep warm. hibernate
dry most of the year
adapted to grazing and fire. Store energy underground and sprout quickly after being burned or grazed
Has lot of mammals. few birds
taken over by agriculture
- winters warm and dry
- summers warm and wet
rich in plant and animals
dry regions. mid to high laditude
- winter, cold and dry
- summer, warmer and dry
low growing shrubs, small insects, rodents
- wet and cold winter
- dry and warm winters
- low growing shrubs, adapted to fires
- produce strong smelling defense chemicals to fight off herbivores
Thorn forest/Tropical savanna
grasslands adapted to fires
- mild dry winters
- wet warm summers
meant for grazing. rich in mammals, birds, reptiles
Tropical Decidiuous Forest
moderately rich in tree species, mammal, birds, reptiles
- hot, wet summers
- hot dry winters
Tropical evergreen forest
- most diverse biome
- tropical but seasonal rainfall
- extremely high plants and animals
- warm and rain all year
Order from closest to deepest. abyssal plain, benthic zone, continental shelf
continental shelf, benthic zone, abyssal plain
the open water above the ocean floor
coastal zone habitats vs benthic zone
- coastal zone habitats - kelp forest, coral reef
- benthic zone- not much...
what are the intermediate zones?
rocky intertidal zone, pelagic zones
have starfish, mussels, and barnacles
aquatic plants that can take up nutrients by diffusion from the surrounding water which can be limited in the stagnant "boundary layer" along a cell surface.
therefore uptake of nutrients increases with the flow rate of water
Describe polymorphism in Eisenia Arborea
Broad bumpy blade flaps in the current, increaing nutrient delivery = 4x more nutrient uptake
Why don't all Eisenia plants have broad, bumpy blades?
There is a tradeoff between nutriennt uptake and survival. The kelp is kelp susceptible to dislodgement by heavy surf
What kinds of environments do you think bumpy vs flat/streamlined plants live?
- bumpy- calm water
- streamlined- heavy surf
What are some trace nutrients that plants need?
Fe, K, Mg
Describe beneficial symbiotic associations (mutualism) in Rhizobia and Mycorrhizae.
Rhizobia form nodules and are able to convert N to NH3
Mycorrhizae enhance nutrient and water uptake
- denitition for grinding plant matter
- long gut to aid digestion
- piercing or sucking mouthparts for insects
- enzymes to detoxify plant chemical defenses
- attack and consume animals
- sharp teeth, claws
- nemacytes (jellyfish)
consume dead plant or animal matter
inseccts, bacteria, and fungi
remove suspended particles from the water
sponges (algae, diatoms) , feather dusters
consume dead organic matter
Why do some animals eat many types of prey, others very few?
- trade off. specialists evolved increased efficiency of feeding on few species.
- generalists feed on variety of species to obtain a balanced diet, increase food availability and decrease intake of certain toxins.
Why does a forager decide what to eat?
Natural selection favors foraging behavior that increases fitness.
should maximize energy per unit of time spent foraging because it increases amount of food obtain and decreases amount of time spent.
General Predictions on feeding
- 1. Best food type is always included in diet
- 2. When abundance of all food types increases, forager becomes more specialized
What elements make up an organism's biomass?
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen
What elements make up an organism's proteins, enzymes, cofactors
How would you measure rate of photosynthesis?
Change of O2 in light - CHange of O2 in dark
study of how organism are ale to survive and function in their environemtn