FA med exam1

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FA med exam1
2013-01-19 14:12:10

FA Medicine
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  1. What are some clinical symptoms of cerebral cortex disease?
    • Change in mentation
    • +/- blindness
    • circling
  2. What are some clinical symptoms of brain stem disease?
    • CN deficits
    • Circling
    • Head tilt
  3. What are some clinical symptoms of cerebellar disease?
    • Intention tremors
    • Hypermetria / dysmetria
    • Incoordination
  4. What are some clinical symptoms of spinal cord disease?
    • Ataxia
    • Spinal reflexes (increased or decreased depending on location)
    • Paralysis / paresis
  5. What are some clinical symptoms of peripheral nerve disease?
    • Muscle tone
    • Muscle atrophy
    • Paralysis / paresis
    • Absence of spinal reflexes
  6. What are the common brain stem diseases in ruminants?
    • Listeriosis
    • Otitis media / interna (M. bovis, P. multocida, H. somni, C. pseudotuberculosis, T. pyogenes)
    • TEME (H. somni)
    • Brain or pituitary abscess
    • Meningeal worm (more often spinal cord)
  7. What are the common brainstem diseases in pigs?
    Otitis media / interna (P. multocida, S. suis, H. suis, T. pyogenes)
  8. What are the common cerebral diseases in ruminants?
    • Cerebrocortical necrosis (CCN)
    • TEME
    • Nervous ketosis
    • Nervous coccidosis
    • Pregnancy toxemia
    • HypoMg
    • BSE
    • Scrapie
    • Rabies
    • VitA deficiency
  9. What are the common cerebellar diseases in ruminants?
    Cerebellar hypoplasia (BVDV type 2)
  10. What are the common spinal cod diseases in ruminants?
    • Tetanus
    • Enzootic ataxia
    • Meningeal worm
    • Lymphosarcoma
    • CAE
  11. What are the common cerebral diseases in pigs?
    • Strep meningitis
    • Glasser’s (H. parasuis)
    • Edema disease (E. coli)
    • HyperNa
    • Pseudorabies
  12. In which pigs are clinical symptoms of cortical disease seen?
  13. What is the mechanism of polioencephalomalacia (CCN)?
    Altered thiamine metabolism
  14. What are some causes of CCN?
    • Pb poisoning
    • Lactic acidosis (e.g. grain overload)
    • HyperNa
    • Bracken fern toxicity
    • Sulfur intoxication
    • Amprolium intoxication
  15. What is the normal pentose phosphate pathway?
    • Glucose is used to make ATP by the rate limiting enzyme VitB1 dependent transketolase
    • The ATP is used to maintain 3Na+/2K+ pumps on the cell membrane
    • Most affected are nervous tissue cells and RBCs
  16. Where do ruminants normally get thiamine?
    Rumen microbes
  17. What are the clinical symptoms of CCN in ruminants?
    • Symmetrical CS
    • Change in mentation
    • Head pressing
    • Stargazing
    • Central blindess
  18. What does a CSF analysis of CCN in ruminants show?
    Increased protein, monocytes (unless it’s a pig with hyperNa)
  19. What does a CSF analysis of a pig with hyperNa show?
  20. What does gross pathology of CCN show?
    • Diffuse cerebral edema
    • Cerebellum pushed back to magnum foramen
    • Wood’s Lamp shows fluorescence in gray and white cerebral cortex
  21. Why do ruminants get Pb poisoning?
    • Calves are curious, esp after weaning
    • May have mineral deficiency
  22. What is the mechanism of Pb poisoning?
    The Pb binds sulfhydryl groups esp on RBCs
  23. What are the clinical symptoms of Pb poisoning?
    • Cortical signs like bellowing, mania, seizures
    • Cortically blind
    • CCN
    • Mild anemia
    • Diarrhea
    • Death from respiratory paralysis
  24. How is Pb poisoning dx?
    • Heparinized blood sample
    • Tissue samples (liver and kidney)
  25. What is the txt for Pb poisoning?
    • Give thiamine
    • CaEDTA to chelate Pb in tissues, excreted by kidney
    • Cathartics e.g. MgSO4
    • Diazepam
  26. What does an increase in rumen lactic acid cause, and why?
    • Rumenitis
    • Metabolic acidosis (if severe)
    • Dehydration (water is pulled into the rumen)
    • Bloat (CHOs are fermented)
    • Endotoxemia (no more g-)
    • CCN (no more thiamine)
    • Liver abscess (F. necrophorum gains access to the portal v.)
    • Caval syndrome (F. necrophorum causes lung abscesses and death)
  27. How does lactic acidosis occur in a ruminant?
    • Ingestion of high CHO
    • The microflora shift to be more g+
    • Strep/ bovis proliferates
    • VFAs increase
    • Rumen pH decreases
    • G- bacteria and protozoa die
    • Lactobacillus proliferates
    • Lactic acid increases in the rumen