FA med exam1

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Anonymous
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193774
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FA med exam1
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2013-01-19 14:12:10
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Medicine
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FA Medicine
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  1. What are some clinical symptoms of cerebral cortex disease?
    • Change in mentation
    • +/- blindness
    • circling
  2. What are some clinical symptoms of brain stem disease?
    • CN deficits
    • Circling
    • Head tilt
  3. What are some clinical symptoms of cerebellar disease?
    • Intention tremors
    • Hypermetria / dysmetria
    • Incoordination
  4. What are some clinical symptoms of spinal cord disease?
    • Ataxia
    • Spinal reflexes (increased or decreased depending on location)
    • Paralysis / paresis
  5. What are some clinical symptoms of peripheral nerve disease?
    • Muscle tone
    • Muscle atrophy
    • Paralysis / paresis
    • Absence of spinal reflexes
  6. What are the common brain stem diseases in ruminants?
    • Listeriosis
    • Otitis media / interna (M. bovis, P. multocida, H. somni, C. pseudotuberculosis, T. pyogenes)
    • TEME (H. somni)
    • Brain or pituitary abscess
    • Meningeal worm (more often spinal cord)
  7. What are the common brainstem diseases in pigs?
    Otitis media / interna (P. multocida, S. suis, H. suis, T. pyogenes)
  8. What are the common cerebral diseases in ruminants?
    • Cerebrocortical necrosis (CCN)
    • TEME
    • Nervous ketosis
    • Nervous coccidosis
    • Pregnancy toxemia
    • HypoMg
    • BSE
    • Scrapie
    • Rabies
    • VitA deficiency
  9. What are the common cerebellar diseases in ruminants?
    Cerebellar hypoplasia (BVDV type 2)
  10. What are the common spinal cod diseases in ruminants?
    • Tetanus
    • Enzootic ataxia
    • Meningeal worm
    • Lymphosarcoma
    • CAE
  11. What are the common cerebral diseases in pigs?
    • Strep meningitis
    • Glasser’s (H. parasuis)
    • Edema disease (E. coli)
    • HyperNa
    • Pseudorabies
  12. In which pigs are clinical symptoms of cortical disease seen?
    Nursery
  13. What is the mechanism of polioencephalomalacia (CCN)?
    Altered thiamine metabolism
  14. What are some causes of CCN?
    • Pb poisoning
    • Lactic acidosis (e.g. grain overload)
    • HyperNa
    • Bracken fern toxicity
    • Sulfur intoxication
    • Amprolium intoxication
  15. What is the normal pentose phosphate pathway?
    • Glucose is used to make ATP by the rate limiting enzyme VitB1 dependent transketolase
    • The ATP is used to maintain 3Na+/2K+ pumps on the cell membrane
    • Most affected are nervous tissue cells and RBCs
  16. Where do ruminants normally get thiamine?
    Rumen microbes
  17. What are the clinical symptoms of CCN in ruminants?
    • Symmetrical CS
    • Change in mentation
    • Head pressing
    • Stargazing
    • Central blindess
  18. What does a CSF analysis of CCN in ruminants show?
    Increased protein, monocytes (unless it’s a pig with hyperNa)
  19. What does a CSF analysis of a pig with hyperNa show?
    Eosinophilia
  20. What does gross pathology of CCN show?
    • Diffuse cerebral edema
    • Cerebellum pushed back to magnum foramen
    • Wood’s Lamp shows fluorescence in gray and white cerebral cortex
  21. Why do ruminants get Pb poisoning?
    • Calves are curious, esp after weaning
    • May have mineral deficiency
  22. What is the mechanism of Pb poisoning?
    The Pb binds sulfhydryl groups esp on RBCs
  23. What are the clinical symptoms of Pb poisoning?
    • Cortical signs like bellowing, mania, seizures
    • Cortically blind
    • CCN
    • Mild anemia
    • Diarrhea
    • Death from respiratory paralysis
  24. How is Pb poisoning dx?
    • Heparinized blood sample
    • Tissue samples (liver and kidney)
  25. What is the txt for Pb poisoning?
    • Give thiamine
    • CaEDTA to chelate Pb in tissues, excreted by kidney
    • Cathartics e.g. MgSO4
    • Diazepam
  26. What does an increase in rumen lactic acid cause, and why?
    • Rumenitis
    • Metabolic acidosis (if severe)
    • Dehydration (water is pulled into the rumen)
    • Bloat (CHOs are fermented)
    • Endotoxemia (no more g-)
    • CCN (no more thiamine)
    • Liver abscess (F. necrophorum gains access to the portal v.)
    • Caval syndrome (F. necrophorum causes lung abscesses and death)
  27. How does lactic acidosis occur in a ruminant?
    • Ingestion of high CHO
    • The microflora shift to be more g+
    • Strep/ bovis proliferates
    • VFAs increase
    • Rumen pH decreases
    • G- bacteria and protozoa die
    • Lactobacillus proliferates
    • Lactic acid increases in the rumen

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