1st astronomy test

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emilydawn2010
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193786
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1st astronomy test
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2013-01-20 13:10:39
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astronomy test
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chapter 1-5 test
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  1. Astronomy
    `study of the world beyond our own
  2. astrophysics
    astronomical phenomena explained using physics.
  3. Star
    universe's basic build block, highly compressed ball of mostly hydrogen and helium gas
  4. globular cluster
    a ball of one to 10 million stars, or occasionally more
  5. galaxy
    large groups of 100 billion stars in spherical or football (elliptical) or disk (spiral) shapes
  6. Milky Way
    our own spiral galaxy
  7. clusters of galaxies
    a grouping of tens of thousands of galaxies
  8. local group
    the local cluster of about 30 galaxies containing our own galaxy, Andromeda and many small ones
  9. supercluster
    clusters of clusters of galaxies
  10. voids
    the universe contains vast empty spaces between clusters of galaxies
  11. cosmology
    study of large-scale make-up orgin of the universe
  12. Speed of Light
    c=3.0x10^8 m/s= 300,000 km/s
  13. Astronomical Unit
    distance from earth to sun
  14. light year
    distance light travels in one year (= ^3,000AU)
  15. parsee(pc)
    an astronomical distance ( =3.26ly)
  16. true or physical size
    the real size of an orject measured in some length unit
  17. constellation
    grouping of stas in the sky representing an object, with names from ancient mythology
  18. celestial sphere
    the spherical projection on the sky used to rep. astronomical objects
  19. horizon
    the perimeter of the plane on which one stands
  20. zenith
    the high point of the sky above you
  21. meridian
    the great circle passing theought he zenith
  22. north  celestial pole
    the point in the sky where earth;s rotation axis point
  23. Polaris
    star that marks the north celestial pole
  24. celestial equator
    earth's equator extended one to the celestail sphere
  25. ecliptic
    sun's path across the sky
  26. right ascension
    like longitude on earth, a measure in time of the location of an object on the celestial sphere
  27. declination
    like latitude on earth, the second measure in degrees of an objects location on the celestial sphere
  28. retrograde motion
    temporary backward motion of a planet across the sky
  29. Seasons
    the cycle of heating and cooling on earth due to the changing intensity of sunlight from 23.5 degree tilt of earths rotation axis relative to the plane of its orbit
  30. eclipeseS
    one object passes through anothers shadow
  31. Lunar eclipse
    the moon passes through earths shadow
  32. solar eclipse
    the earth passes through the moons shadow
  33. Umbra, penumbra eclipse
    dark inner and less dark outer shadown of an object
  34. New moon
    the dark moon
  35. full moon
    bright complete moon
  36. first quarter moon
    half moon bright on the right side
  37. third quarter moon
    half moon brighter on the left side
  38. power of 10 notation
    use 10 multiplied n times to rep. 1.00...00 with n zeros or 10^n for 1/10= one divied by 10^n
  39. order of magnitude
    estimating the size of something in powers of 10
  40. occam's razor
    the simplest explainmation is likely the correct one
  41. deduction
    reasioning from the general to the particular
  42. induction
    reasoning from particular facts to obtain a general relation
  43. inference
    the conclusion of a deductive arguement
  44. science
    the observations lead to a hypothesis and a prediction, then an experiement provides data that either verifies or falsifies the hypothesis
  45. observation
    mostly qualitative features notes about some natural phenomenon
  46. experiment
    a controlled observation of hypothesis with quantitative measurements (data)
  47. hypothesis
    a proposed relationship among physical quantities about how nature works
  48. theory
    a set of verified hypothesis
  49. model
    a representaion of a theory allowing numerical computations
  50. inertia
    resistance to change in an objects motion measured by an objects mass
  51. speed
    the measue of the motion (distance covered per gievn times) or an object in m/s (meters per second)
  52. acceleration
    the change in an objects speed versus time in units of m/s^2
  53. force
    a push or pull or gravity acting on an object, causing it to move
  54. mass
    measures the quantity of matter
  55. newton's law of motion
    the law of inertia, the law of acceleration ; F=m s, the law of action- reaction
  56. law or gravitation
    the force of attraction between two masses at diestance.
  57. weight
    force of gravity of earths acting on an object; works also on another planet
  58. pressure
    the action of a force distributed over area A of application P=F/A
  59. Radius
    distance from the center of rotation
  60. angular momentum
    measures an objects by its speed v, radiud of orbit r, and mass m L=r m v
  61. conservation of angular motion
    L is a conserved, that is, not lost of gained
  62. Erarosthenes
    found earths size using the change in lengths of shadows from place to place
  63. paallaz
    the apparent visual shift of a nearby object against a distant background when moving sideways
  64. ptolemy's geocentric model
    Solar system model where planets move on epicycles with earth at center
  65. Copernicus' heliocentric model
    solar system model with sun at center; planets travel along simple circles
  66. tycho brahe
    advanced the accuracy of star and planet position measurements by a factor of six, namely from .05 to .0083=.5 arcim
  67. kepler's laws of planetary motion
    planets move along ellipses, the speed varies near to and far from the sun; p^2=a^3, with P a planets period of orbit in years and a the average distance of the planet from the sun in AU
  68. light rays
    light collimated into thin beams or rays
  69. reflection
    light rays bounce off a polished surface
  70. refreaction
    light rays bend when passing into another transparent medium
  71. Lenses
    disks of transparent material, rounded inward or outward, that use refreaction to focus light
  72. electromagnetic spectrum
    gamma-rays, x=rays, UV light, visible light, infrared radiation, radio waves
  73. refractor
    a telescope using only lenses
  74. reflector
    a telescope using a mirror as objective to gather light
  75. magnification
    the overal increase in the angular size of the image seen through a telescope
  76. resloving power
    smallest angular separation a scope can distinguish.
  77. light-gathering power
    area of the light collecting of objective of a telescope
  78. twinkle effect
    a main limiting factor of ground-based telescoped cause by the atmospheric distortion of images
  79. adaptive optics
    correction of twinkle effect by comparison to single star image
  80. Earth
    only planet to have plate techtonic, oxygen, liquid water, climate stability, and life
  81. plate techtonics
    earths crust consists of independent pieces that move and collide
  82. atmospheric oxygen
    a planet with significant oxygen in its atmosphere
  83. surface liquid water
    a planet where temp. and pressure allow surface water to be in liquid form helping the development of life
  84. climate stability
    stmosphereic conditions are relatively stable over time
  85. life
    in the solar system, earth is the only planet world known to have ______ which is both abundant and diverse
  86. carbon dioxide
    the most common gas released by volcanoes on a planet on earth, it gets locked up into the rocks in the oceans after rains carry it there
  87. global warming
    the trapping of heat in the stmosphere due to extra manmade CO2 or other green house gases
  88. ozone hole
    destruction of earths upper atmospheric ozone layer by chlorine released from chloofluorocarbons by UV radiation
  89. moon
    one of the largest planet satelliets of any planet in the sloar system, heavily cratered, no liquid or atmosphere; now thought to orginate from an early major impact on earth which squished out material that later reformed as the ______
  90. terrestrial planets
    mercury, venus, earth and mars
  91. Inner, Terrestial planets
    the inner planet make ups are metallic/rocky with average densities of 5g/cm^3 and consisting of a solid inner and liquid outer core of mostly iron a liquid rocky middle layer and thin rigid crust
  92. Mercury
    mostly, large iron core due to early large impact; cratered much life the moon, few lowland or lighland flat areas. how due to sun's closeness not atmosphere; smal magnetic field: 1/3 larger then moon' no moon
  93. Venus
    size of earth, dense atmosphere or carbon dioxide with caustic sulfur dioxide clouds; very hot due to runaway greenhouse effect trapping of infrared head; enormous pressure no moons or magnertic fielf; some high moutains; mapped by radar
  94. Earth
    dense stmosphere with oxygen; much liquid water, moving crustal plates, originated/sustains much life, long term stable climate; stong magnetic field' large moon
  95. Mars
    half earths size; no magnetic field, very thin, atmosphere .01 of earths pressure; some cratering with large seas and highlans; solar system;s highest moutain/volcano; now very dry; evidence of water erosion and much wind erosion; seasonal polar ice caps; two small moons

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