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RadiationTherapy
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Pythagorean Theorem can only be applied to what kind of triangle?
A right triangle

The sum of the angles of a right triangle is:
180°

Field size and percentage depth dose are _________ proportional.
Directly
As the field size increases the percentage depth dose increases as well.

Units of measure:
Energy
Joule (1kgm^{2}/s^{2})
Electron Volt (eV)

What are the most commonly used energy units used in radiation therapy?
Kiloelectron Volts (keV=10^{3}eV)
Megaelectron Volts (MeV=10eV)

Units of measure:
Activity / Radioactivity
 Curie (Ci) = 3.73 x 10^{10} dps
 Becquerel (Bq) = 1 dps
(dps = disintegrations per second)

Units of measure:
Exposure
 exposure in air
 1 Roentgen (R) = 2.58 x 10^{4 }C/kg
Coulomb/kg (C/kg)

Units of measure:
Absorbed Dose
 Radiation Absorbed Dose (rad)
 Gray (Gy)
 1Gy = 100rad = 100cGy
1rad=1cGy

Units of measure:
Radiation dose equivalent
rem = QF x rad
sievert (Sv) = QF x Gy
1Sv = 100rem

Note:
1.7 min is not 1 min 7 seconds!
 the .7 is 70% of one min, so
1.7 min = 1 min 42 sec

The smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of that element.
an Atom

The mass (weight) of a particle when it is not moving.
Rest Mass

A shortranged force that is responsible for interaction between neutron & proton & other particles in the hadron family.
the Strong Force

The force responsible for interaction between particles with nonzero mass and has infinite range.
Gravity

The class of elementary particles that contains electrons:
Leptons

The class of elementary particles that contains protons, neutrons & other composite particles:
Hadrons

The force that is responsible for interaction between electrically charged particles and particles with nonzero magnetic moments, has infinite range.
Electromagnetic (EM) Force

Responsible for binding electrons & the nucleus and the binding of atoms to form molecules and the binding of molecules to form solids & liquids.
Electromagnetic (EM) Force

A shortranged force that is responsible for interaction between elementary particles involving neutrinos or antineutrinos
the Weak Force

The type of force that is responsible for radioactive decay of a neutron to a proton, an electron and an antineutrino, called beta decay.
the Weak Force

Only _____ are affected by the Strong Force.
Hadrons

A.M.U.
 Atomic mass unit
 defined such that the mass of an atom of Carbon12 is exactly 12amu

Photon energy is ____________ proportional to photon wavelength
Photon energy is INVERSELY proportional to photon wavelength.

The maximum number of electrons allowed in the outer most shell:
8

What is the equation used to determine the number of electrons in a shell:
2n^{2}

Nucleons
Protons & Neutrons

The _________ determines the energy and size of the atomic orbital.
Has only nonzero positive intergral values.
Principal quantum number (n)

Electrons with the same ________ are said to belong to the same shell.
Principal quantum number (n)

What is the SI unit of energy?
the Joule

The minimum amount of energy needed to keep the nucleons together.
The lowest energy state of the atom.

When energy is imparted to the electrons of the atom, the electrons will move to higherenergy empty states and the atom will then reach an unstable state.
Excitation

Electrons in the outermost shell of an atom:
Valence electrons

When sufficient energy is given to an atom, an electron can overcome its binding energy and be completely removed from the atom.
Ionization

Auger electron
(ozhey)
Ejected Electrons

The major force that holds the nucleus of an atom together:
Nuclear Force

The transmission of excess energy (in the form of photons) when an electron moves to fill a vacancy in another shell.
Ionization

The force that tightly binds protons & neutrons to each other
Strong Nuclear Force

The number of protons in the nucleus:
(z)
Atomic Number (z)

The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus:
(A)

^{A }^{ } X
z
 A Atomic Mass Number (total)
 Element
 z Atomic Number (protons)

The total amount of energy that it takes to hold a nucleus together:
 Nuclear Binding Energy
 (MeV)

The binding energy divided by the atomic mass number:
Binding energy per nucleon

Minimum amount of energy needed to keep the nucleons together:
Ground State

Any packet of energy traveling through space at the speed of light (3x10^{8} m/s)
a Photon

A photon has no ______ of its own or ________, it has only _______.
 no MASS
 no ELECTRICAL CHARGE
 has only ENERGY

Photons exhibit the characteristics of a ______ at times and a ______ at others. This phenomenon is known as ___________.
 wave
 particle
 WaveParticle Duality

The number of times a wave oscillates or cycles per second:
Frequency
measured in Hertz (Hz)

The physical distance between peaks of the wave:
 Wavelength

All EM waves travel at the speed of light, so their ________ is a constant 3x10^{8} m/s.
Velocity (c)

same Z
different A
different N
IsotoPe
same # Protons (z)

different Z
same A
different N
IsobAr
same # total or All

different Z
different A
same N
IsotoNe
same # Neutrons

same Z
same A
same N
IsomEr
same Everything

If the number of protons in an atom increases, the number of electrons _______
Increases

