Physics Ch 14 W&L

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Physics Ch 14 W&L
2014-01-03 15:42:59
Physics Radiation Therapy Chapter 14

Physics chapter 14 Washington & Leaver Test 2/1
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  1. Pythagorean Theorem can only be applied to what kind of triangle?
    A right triangle

  2. The sum of the angles of a right triangle is:
  3. Field size and percentage depth dose are _________ proportional.

    As the field size increases the percentage depth dose increases as well.
  4. Units of measure:
    Joule (1kgm2/s2)

    Electron Volt (eV)
  5. What are the most commonly used energy units used in radiation therapy?
    Kiloelectron Volts (keV=103eV)

    Megaelectron Volts (MeV=10eV)
  6. Units of measure:
    Activity / Radioactivity
    • Curie (Ci) = 3.73 x 1010 dps
    • Becquerel (Bq) = 1 dps

    (dps = disintegrations per second)
  7. Units of measure:
    • exposure in air
    • 1 Roentgen (R) = 2.58 x 10-4 C/kg

    Coulomb/kg (C/kg)
  8. Units of measure:
    Absorbed Dose
    • Radiation Absorbed Dose (rad)
    • Gray (Gy)
    • 1Gy = 100rad = 100cGy

  9. Units of measure:
    Radiation dose equivalent
    rem = QF x rad

    sievert (Sv) = QF x Gy

    1Sv = 100rem
  10. Note:
    1.7 min is not 1 min 7 seconds!
    • the .7 is 70% of one min, so

    1.7 min = 1 min 42 sec
  11. The smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of that element.
    an Atom
  12. The mass (weight) of a particle when it is not moving.
    Rest Mass
  13. A short-ranged force that is responsible for interaction between neutron & proton & other particles in the hadron family.
    the Strong Force
  14. The force responsible for interaction between particles with nonzero mass and has infinite range.
  15. The class of elementary particles that contains electrons:
  16. The class of elementary particles that contains protons, neutrons & other composite particles:
  17. The force that is responsible for interaction between electrically charged particles and particles with nonzero magnetic moments, has infinite range.
    Electromagnetic (EM) Force
  18. Responsible for binding electrons & the nucleus and the binding of atoms to form molecules and the binding of molecules to form solids & liquids.
    Electromagnetic (EM) Force
  19. A short-ranged force that is responsible for interaction between elementary particles involving neutrinos or anti-neutrinos
    the Weak Force
  20. The type of force that is responsible for radioactive decay of a neutron to a proton, an electron and an antineutrino, called beta decay.
    the Weak Force
  21. Only _____ are affected by the Strong Force.
  22. A.M.U.
    • Atomic mass unit
    • defined such that the mass of an atom of Carbon-12 is exactly 12amu
  23. Photon energy is ____________ proportional to photon wavelength
    Photon energy is INVERSELY proportional to photon wavelength.
  24. The maximum number of electrons allowed in the outer most shell:
  25. What is the equation used to determine the number of electrons in a shell:
  26. Nucleons
    Protons & Neutrons
  27. The _________ determines the energy and size of the atomic orbital.
    Has only nonzero positive intergral values.
    Principal quantum number (n)
  28. Electrons with the same ________ are said to belong to the same shell.
    Principal quantum number (n)
  29. What is the SI unit of energy?
    the Joule
  30. The minimum amount of energy needed to keep the nucleons together.
    The lowest energy state of the atom.
    • Ground State
    • n=1
  31. When energy is imparted to the electrons of the atom, the electrons will move to higher-energy empty states and the atom will then reach an unstable state.
  32. Electrons in the outermost shell of an atom:
    Valence electrons
  33. When sufficient energy is given to an atom, an electron can overcome its binding energy and be completely removed from the atom.
  34. Auger electron
    Ejected Electrons
  35. The major force that holds the nucleus of an atom together:
    Nuclear Force
  36. The transmission of excess energy (in the form of photons) when an electron moves to fill a vacancy in another shell.
  37. The force that tightly binds protons & neutrons to each other
    Strong Nuclear Force
  38. The number of protons in the nucleus:
    Atomic Number (z)
  39. The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus:
    • Atomic Mass Number
    • (A)
  40.   X
    • A- Atomic Mass Number (total)
    •                                            Element
    • z- Atomic Number (protons)
  41. The total amount of energy that it takes to hold a nucleus together:
    • Nuclear Binding Energy
    • (MeV)
  42. The binding energy divided by the atomic mass number:
    Binding energy per nucleon
  43. Minimum amount of energy needed to keep the nucleons together:
    Ground State
  44. Any packet of energy traveling through space at the speed of light (3x108 m/s)
    a Photon
  45. A photon has no ______ of its own or ________, it has only _______.
    • no MASS
    • has only ENERGY
  46. Photons exhibit the characteristics of a ______ at times and a ______ at others. This phenomenon is known as ___________.
    • wave
    • particle
    • Wave-Particle Duality
  47. The number of times a wave oscillates or cycles per second:

    measured in Hertz (Hz)
  48. The physical distance between peaks of the wave:
    • Wavelength 
  49. All EM waves travel at the speed of light, so their ________ is a constant 3x108 m/s.
    Velocity (c)
  50. same Z   
    different A   
    different N

    same # Protons (z)
  51. different Z
    same A
    different N

    same # total or All
  52. different Z
    different A
    same N

    same # Neutrons
  53. same Z
    same A
    same N

    same Everything
  54. If the number of protons in an atom increases, the number of electrons _______