# Physics Ch 14 W&L

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1. Pythagorean Theorem can only be applied to what kind of triangle?
A right triangle

2. The sum of the angles of a right triangle is:
180°
3. Field size and percentage depth dose are _________ proportional.
Directly

As the field size increases the percentage depth dose increases as well.
4. Units of measure:
Energy
Joule (1kgm2/s2)

Electron Volt (eV)
5. What are the most commonly used energy units used in radiation therapy?
Kiloelectron Volts (keV=103eV)

Megaelectron Volts (MeV=10eV)
6. Units of measure:
• Curie (Ci) = 3.73 x 1010 dps
• Becquerel (Bq) = 1 dps

(dps = disintegrations per second)
7. Units of measure:
Exposure
• exposure in air
• 1 Roentgen (R) = 2.58 x 10-4 C/kg

Coulomb/kg (C/kg)
8. Units of measure:
Absorbed Dose
• Gray (Gy)
• 1Gy = 100rad = 100cGy

9. Units of measure:

sievert (Sv) = QF x Gy

1Sv = 100rem
10. Note:
1.7 min is not 1 min 7 seconds!
• the .7 is 70% of one min, so

1.7 min = 1 min 42 sec
11. The smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of that element.
an Atom
12. The mass (weight) of a particle when it is not moving.
Rest Mass
13. A short-ranged force that is responsible for interaction between neutron & proton & other particles in the hadron family.
the Strong Force
14. The force responsible for interaction between particles with nonzero mass and has infinite range.
Gravity
15. The class of elementary particles that contains electrons:
Leptons
16. The class of elementary particles that contains protons, neutrons & other composite particles:
17. The force that is responsible for interaction between electrically charged particles and particles with nonzero magnetic moments, has infinite range.
Electromagnetic (EM) Force
18. Responsible for binding electrons & the nucleus and the binding of atoms to form molecules and the binding of molecules to form solids & liquids.
Electromagnetic (EM) Force
19. A short-ranged force that is responsible for interaction between elementary particles involving neutrinos or anti-neutrinos
the Weak Force
20. The type of force that is responsible for radioactive decay of a neutron to a proton, an electron and an antineutrino, called beta decay.
the Weak Force
21. Only _____ are affected by the Strong Force.
22. A.M.U.
• Atomic mass unit
• defined such that the mass of an atom of Carbon-12 is exactly 12amu
23. Photon energy is ____________ proportional to photon wavelength
Photon energy is INVERSELY proportional to photon wavelength.
24. The maximum number of electrons allowed in the outer most shell:
8
25. What is the equation used to determine the number of electrons in a shell:
2n2
26. Nucleons
Protons & Neutrons
27. The _________ determines the energy and size of the atomic orbital.
Has only nonzero positive intergral values.
Principal quantum number (n)
28. Electrons with the same ________ are said to belong to the same shell.
Principal quantum number (n)
29. What is the SI unit of energy?
the Joule
30. The minimum amount of energy needed to keep the nucleons together.
The lowest energy state of the atom.
• Ground State
• n=1
31. When energy is imparted to the electrons of the atom, the electrons will move to higher-energy empty states and the atom will then reach an unstable state.
Excitation
32. Electrons in the outermost shell of an atom:
Valence electrons
33. When sufficient energy is given to an atom, an electron can overcome its binding energy and be completely removed from the atom.
Ionization
34. Auger electron
(o-zhey)
Ejected Electrons
35. The major force that holds the nucleus of an atom together:
Nuclear Force
36. The transmission of excess energy (in the form of photons) when an electron moves to fill a vacancy in another shell.
Ionization
37. The force that tightly binds protons & neutrons to each other
Strong Nuclear Force
38. The number of protons in the nucleus:
(z)
Atomic Number (z)
39. The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus:
(A)
• Atomic Mass Number
• (A)
40.   X
z
• A- Atomic Mass Number (total)
•                                            Element
• z- Atomic Number (protons)
41. The total amount of energy that it takes to hold a nucleus together:
• Nuclear Binding Energy
• (MeV)
42. The binding energy divided by the atomic mass number:
Binding energy per nucleon
43. Minimum amount of energy needed to keep the nucleons together:
Ground State
44. Any packet of energy traveling through space at the speed of light (3x108 m/s)
a Photon
45. A photon has no ______ of its own or ________, it has only _______.
• no MASS
• no ELECTRICAL CHARGE
• has only ENERGY
46. Photons exhibit the characteristics of a ______ at times and a ______ at others. This phenomenon is known as ___________.
• wave
• particle
• Wave-Particle Duality
47. The number of times a wave oscillates or cycles per second:
Frequency

measured in Hertz (Hz)
48. The physical distance between peaks of the wave:
• Wavelength
49. All EM waves travel at the speed of light, so their ________ is a constant 3x108 m/s.
Velocity (c)
50. same Z
different A
different N
IsotoPe

same # Protons (z)
51. different Z
same A
different N
IsobAr

same # total or All
52. different Z
different A
same N
IsotoNe

same # Neutrons
53. same Z
same A
same N
IsomEr

same Everything
54. If the number of protons in an atom increases, the number of electrons _______
Increases
 Author: RadiationTherapy ID: 193792 Card Set: Physics Ch 14 W&L Updated: 2014-01-03 20:42:59 Tags: Physics Radiation Therapy Chapter 14 Folders: Description: Physics chapter 14 Washington & Leaver Test 2/1 Show Answers: