A&P 10

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Author:
hannahsahm
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193802
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A&P 10
Updated:
2013-01-19 17:57:28
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Anatomy Physiology
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Nervous System 1-Basic structure and function
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  1. 3 general funcitons
    • sensory-receiving stimuli
    • integrative-deciding how to respond to stimuli
    • motor-carry out response to stimuli
  2. neural tissue
    • made up of:
    • neurons-nerve cells
    • neuroglial cells-neuroglia, glia
    • connective tissue
    • blood vessels 
  3. neurons
    react to physical and chemical changes in their surroundings 
  4. dendrites
    receive the input
  5. axon
    nerve fiber, carries the information away from the cell in the form of impulses
  6. synapse
    small space between a neuron and the cell with which it communicates
  7. neurotransmitters
  8. neurotransmitters
    messenger molecules that convey neural information 
  9. CNS-central nervous system
    brain and spinal cord, composed of nerves
  10. sensory receptors
    • picks up information and delivers to CNS
    • -provide sensory function
    • -detects changes inside and outside the body
    • -external environment
  11. effectors
    • carry out the motor function of the nervous system
    • -muscles and glands; controlled by nerve activity 
  12. somatic nervous system
    • motor function
    • -voluntary
    • -skeletal muscles, causing contraction 
  13. autonomic nervous system
    • motor function
    • -involuntary subconscious actions
    • -smooth muscle
    • -endocrine 
  14. PNS-peripheral nervous system
    • connect the central nervous system to other body parts
    • -cranial 
    • -spinal
  15. neurofibrils
    extends into the axon and supports it
  16. chromatophilic substance
    • consists mainly of rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • -scattered throughout the cytoplasm
    • -membranous packets
  17. schwann cells
    • encase the large axons of peropheral neurons 
    • -wrap around the axon
    • -create myelination
    • -speed neurotransmision
  18. myelin
    • creates faster travel than if unmyelinated
    • encases the axon
  19. nodes of ranvier
    narrow gaps in the myelin sheath between schwann cells (slower travel)
  20. white matter
    • myelinated axons
    • faster travel
  21. gray matter
    • unmyelinated axons
    • slower travel
  22. neurilemma
    • nerve re-generation
    • only in schwann cells/PNS
    • case around myelination
    • cytoplasm
  23. multipolor neuron
    • has many processes arising from its cell body
    • -only one is an axon; the rest are dendrites 
    • -brain or spinal cord
  24. bipolar neuron
    •  has only two processes
    • -one is an axon and the other is a dendrite 
    • -eyes nose and ears
  25. unipolar neuron
    • single process extending from cell body
    • -two branches which really function as a single axon
    • -projection
    • -ganglion
    • -sensory neurons
  26. ganglia
    • outside the brain or spinal cord
    • -cell bodies of some unipolar neurons aggregate in specialized masses of nerve tissue
  27. sensory neurons
    • afferent neurons 
    • -from peripheral body parts into the brain or spinal cord
    • -sensory receptors, detecting changes in the outside world
  28. interneurons
    • lie within and form links with other neurons
    • -may direct incoming sensory information to appropriate region for processing and interpreting
  29. motor neurons
    • efferent neurons
    • -multipolor and conduct impulses out of the brain an spinal cord to effectors
    • -somatic nervous system
  30. astrocytes
    • star-shaped cells between neurons and blood vessels 
    • -cns
    • -formation of scar tissue
    • -blood barrier
    • -structural support
    • -communicate with one another and neurons
  31. Oligodendrocytes 
    • in rows along axons
    • -myelination 
    • -cns
    • -produce nerve growth factors 
  32. microglia
    • -cns
    • -small cells with few cellular processes
    • -phagocytosis
    • -structural support
  33. ependyma
    • -cns
    • -in the lining of the ventricles (cavity) of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord
    • -forms a porous layer through which substances diffuse between the interstitial fluid of the brain and spinal cord
  34. satellite cells
    • surround cell bodies of neurons in ganglia
    • -pns
  35. nerve axon re-generation 
    • -site of injury
    • -distal portion of axon degenerates 
    • -proximal end of injured axon regenerates into tube of schwann cells
    • -schwann cell tube extends distal to the injury
    • -schwann cells form new myelin sheath
    • -former connection reestablished 
  36. presynaptic
    neuron carrying an impulse to the synapse is the sender
  37. postsynaptic
    the neuron receiving the input at the synapse 
  38. outside of a neuron
    is positively charged
  39. inside of a neuron
    is negatively charged
  40. nerve impulse
    • 1. depolorization- Na+ channels open
    • -drop resting potential to -55mV(threshold stimulus)
    • -na rushes in

    • 2. repolorization 
    • -k+ channels open 
    • -K+ flow
  41. absolute refractory period
    lasts about 1/2500 seconds, the axons voltage-gated sodium channels are not responsivee at all, axon cannot be stimulated 
  42. relative refractory period
    during the time when the membrane reestablishes its resting period 
  43. saltatory condution
    • action potentials appear to jump from node node
    • impulse conduction
  44. synaptic potentials
    • changes in chemically gated ion channels create local potentials
    • -enable one neuron to affect another
  45. summation
    of the excitatory and inhibitory effects of the postsynaptic potentials commonly takes places at the trigger zone 
  46. facilitation
    if the net effect is excitatory, but subthreshold, an impulse will bot be triggered, but another immediate release of neurotransmitter will be more likely to bring the postsynaptic cell to threshold
  47. convergence
    • axons originating from different parks of the nervous system leading to the same neuron
    • -allows the nervous system to collect, process,  and respond to information
    • -may reflect summation of input from two sources
  48. divergence
    • -single axon, but axons may branch at several points
    • -reaching other neurons
    • -info can be processed and evoke a response
  49. neuronal pools
    • neurons completely within the cns
    • receives input from neurons
    • each pool generates output 
  50. neuropeptides
    • neurons in the brain and spinal
    • -substances that alter a neurons response to a neurotransmitter or block the release of a neurotransmitter 

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