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What are the two types of physical exams we can do?
- individual exam: sick animal, prepurchase, lameness, reproductive or breeding soundness exam
- group or herd exam: health certificates, shipping certificates
What are the different things we can use for animal identification?
- ear tags - metal clip tags, plastic
- neck chains or collars & tags
- ear notching
- brands - freeze, hot iron
- distinguishing marks (used for horses)
When ear notching pigs, what does the notches in the right ear mean? Left ear?
- right ear: litter number
- left ear: pig number
What needs to be examined during a physical exam?
- general appearance
- vital signs
- oral cavity
What about the general appearance do we need to note?
- body condition
What about behavior do we look for during the physical exam?
- interaction with the group
- bright/alert vs. dull/comatose
What about gait and posture do we need to look at during the physical exam?
- is weight evenly distributed?
- other abnormalities - circling, ataxia
What about the body condition do we look at?
- general - fat, normal, thin, emaciated
- body condition score
- muscling and symmetry
What is the scale for the body condition score?
- can use 1 - 5 or 1 - 10
- for dairy cattle we use 1 - 5
- for beef cattle we use 1 - 10
How do we determine the weight of an animal?
- weight tapes
Out of bovine, equine, ovine, or porcine which species typically has the highest temperature? lowest temperature?
- highest temperature: ovine
- lowest temperature: equine
- bovine: 100.5 - 102.5
- equine: 99.0 - 101.0
- ovine: 102.0 - 103.5
- porcine: 101.0 - 103.5
Out of bovine, equine, ovine, or porcine which species typically has the highest pulse rate? lowest pulse rate?
- highest pulse rate: ovine
- lowest pulse rate: equine
- bovine: 40 - 80 bpm
- equine: 28 - 44 bpm
- ovine: 70 - 80 bpm
- procine: 60 - 80 bpm
Where can the pulse be found and for which animals?
- facial - equine and possible bovine
- transverse facial artery - equine
- palmar digital artery - equine
- femoral artery - smaller ruminants and neonates
- coccygeal artery - equine and bovine
- jugular pulse - visible in equine and possibly bovine
- auscult heart
- dorsal metatarsal - equine
Out of bovine, equine, ovine, and procine which species typically has the highest respiration rate? lowest respiration rate?
- highest: bovine
- lowest: equine
- bovine: 10 - 32 bpm
- equine: 8 - 18 bpm
- ovine: 10 - 25 bpm
- porcine: 10 - 25 bpm
In ruminants, what do we need to note about the eyes?
In equine, what do we need to note about the eyes?
check for corneal problems - very susceptible to these problems
What shape are horses and ruminants eyes? What else do they have on their eye that we don't need to be concerned about?
- oval shaped
- corpora nigra - lobulated mass that dangles in front of the pupil
What shape are pigs eyes?
What about the integument do we need to note during our physical exam?
type of hair coat and if it is normal for that season
What about the oral cavity do we need to examine during our physical exam?
- foodstuff in mouth?
- normal species differences in dental formulas
What is the dental formula for ruminants?
2(I0/3 C0/1 P3/3 M3/3) = 32
What is the dental formula for equine?
- 2(I3/3 C0-1/0-1 P3-4/3-4 M3/3) = 36 - 44
- first upper/lower premolars - wolf tooth if it exists
- lower wolf tooth possible but unlikely
- mares can have canines
What is the dental formula for porcine?
2(I3/3 C1/1 P4/4 M3/3) = 44
What is the wolf tooth?
- it is not a canine
- it is the first premolar
Do large animals teeth continuously grow?
_____ of lameness cases in large animals are due to the _____.
What are cloven footed?
Do hooves grow continuously?
yes, need to be trimmed
What is percussion?
striking an area and listening for the sound it makes
What do we note about the cardiovascular system during a physical exam?
- check the jugular pulse
- note any arrhythmia or murmurs
- mm color
- breathing effort
How many compartments does a ruminants stomach have?
What are the compartments of a ruminants stomach?
Where do we auscult gut sounds in a ruminant?
left paralumbar fossa
How many rumen contractions are normal?
3 rumen contractions per 2 minutes
When we percuss the abdomen what does a ping sound indicate?
- could either be from left displaced abomasum (LDA) or right displaced abomasum (RDA)
What is the fermentation vat in a horse?
the large intestines
What do normal gut sounds of a horse sound like?
near constant gurgling, dripping, quiet contractions
We need to auscult all _____ quadrants of a horse's abdomen.
Why do we use a rebreathing bag when listening to the lungs of horses?
causes them to become hypercapnic and they will then take a big breath so we can listen better
What is the breeding soundness exam for males include?
- semen analysis
- scrotal circumference
- +/- palpation of accessory sex glands
How do we exam the reproductive system of females?
- rectal palpation
- type of udder/number of mammary glands